Attitudes & Persuasion Continued
Attitudes & Persuasion Continued PSYC2012
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Thursday March 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC2012 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Duval in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 138 views.
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Date Created: 03/12/15
Tuesday March 3 2015 Class Notes Social Psychology Attitudes amp Persuasion Continued Attitude Measurement SelfReport Physiological Unobtrusive Bogus Pipeline this is a method of using selfreport that reduces the number of false reporting need to debrief after this Example of how this can be used Convince someone that you know when they are lying by hooking them up to fake electrodes that ding when the person is lying would need to know when the person is lying This would convince them that you know when they are lying and this way you can ask them about things you really want to know about like their prejudices Persuasion Traditional Approach Hovland Yale Group AKA Traditional Approach Who says What to Whom The first real set of research on persuasion Who Communicator Likable vs unlikable attractive vs unattractive professional vs unprofessional What Communication message Fluffy message vs serious message Whom Audience whose attitude is targeted Female vs male audience good mood vs bad mood audience Cognitive Response Theory attempts to answer why a persuasive attempt is successful What internal communication are you having with yourself when listening to a persuasive message Tuesday March 3 2015 Positive or negative thoughts or responses when listening to a persuasive attempt critical More positive thoughts agree with persuader More negative thoughts disagree with persuader We do not do this every time we are faced with persuasion because we are constantly being bombarded with attempts to change attitudes Elaboration Likelihood Model ELM suggests tow ways to process a message Central carefully process message and counter argue if possible We do not do this often Peripheral don t carefully process message and rely on other superficial cues instead We do this more often Under what circumstances will we use think centrally Under low cognitive load personally relevant not distracted Under what circumstances will we use think peripherally Under high cognitive load very busy time pressure distracted not personally relevant not a big decision like buying salad dressing Persuasion Source Source the source can persuade through three types of attitude change and different source characteristics can aid in these different types lnternalize believe the claims they make Credible credibility stems from both expertise knowledge the source has and trustworthiness lack of ulterior motives a credible source is more persuasive Sleeper Effect forget source wasn t credible after awhile but remember positions so have attitude change This can change your attitude but not immediately Tuesday March 3 2015 Example You friend says Did you know the world is covered 74 by water and you say Oh no I didn t wow where did you hear that The friend then says I just made it up Well later you might find yourself saying this to someone else and you forget that it isn t true and it originally had no credibility Persuasion Message Message attitude change is more likely with the following types of messages 1sided vs 2 sided If the audience is initially favorable to your position a 1sided argument is best don39t even acknowledge the opposition If the audience does not hold your view though a 2 sided argument is better acknowledge a few good points on that side but emphasize why your side is better Example If you re a republican talking to only republicans a 1sided approach is better If you re a republican talking to democrats and republicans a 2 sided approach is better Strong vs weak arguments strong arguments lead to more attitude change only if the message is being centrally processed Rhetorical questions do you want the best education possiblequot as opposed to statements quotUniversity X will give you the best education possiblequot Questions stimulate thought and more careful processing of the message helps strong arguments Humor mixed evidence on whether humor leads to peripheral acceptance of message Fear Appeal works the most with a moderate level of fear person needs to feel they can stop the negative thing from happening Not Blatantly Manipulative be subtle we dont like to think we re being manipulated Message Repetition mere exposure we like familiarity only if not initially negative Number of Arguments we think that lots of arguments must mean they re better peripheral route Fast Talking a message that is delivered rapidly can prevent adequate counterargument Persuasion Audience Tuesday March 3 2015 Positive Mood we tend not to centrally process info when we re in a good mood so use peripheral cues and are more easily persuaded also positive mood can transfer to the attitude object Women some evidence shows that women are more easily influenced than men Intelligence if you have a complex message an intelligent audience will be able to process it better An intelligent audience might also be better able to counter argue though so intelligence could have either effect on persuasion High Involvement Issues important to us so will lead to central processing better have strong arguments and use a 2 sided message Resisting Attitude Change Reactance negative reaction to a perceived threat to personal freedom We tend to react negatively to threatened personal freedom like when you want to do something more if someone tells you not to do it Already positive attitudes can be made negative with too much pressure to be positive Example If you were an overactive campaign worker for Katie Smith and you walk up to someone who already likes her and yell at them saying you have to vote for you you are an idiot if you don t the person now thinks Katie Smith is a bad choice because she has crazy yelling people working for her Forewarning advance knowledge that you are about to become the target of an attempt at persuasion Selective Avoidance tendency to direct attention away from attitude challenging information Inoculation helps you resist persuasive attempt little attacks against one s attitudes gets them ready for fullblown attempts to change their attitudes Support Defense additional arguments to support your attitude Inoculation Defense increases effectiveness at counter arguing persuasion attempts