Introduction to the Endocrine System
Introduction to the Endocrine System Psio 202
Popular in Human Anatomy and Physiology 202 Lecture and Lab
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anonymous Notetaker on Thursday March 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psio 202 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Eric Price and Dr. Eugene Settle in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 179 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology 202 Lecture and Lab in Physiology at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 03/12/15
Introduction to Endocrine System Endocrine Gland o Pituitary o Thyroid o Parathyroid o Adrenal o Pineal Other organstissues that contain endocrine cells 0 Hypothalamus o Thymus o Pancreas o Ovariestestes o Kidneys Liver o Stomach Heart Skin 0 Adipose tissue Endocrine vs Exocrine o Endocrine secrete products into interstitial uid and diffuse into blood 0 Exocrine secrete products into ducts or lumens or to the outer surface of the body Hormones Mediator molecules released in one part of the body that regulate activity in other parts of the body 0 Local hormones Act locally on neighboring cells paracrine or on the same cell 0 that secreted them autocrine Without first entering the blood stream I Ex IL2 released from helper T cells stimulates proliferation of helper T cells and activation of cytotoxic T cells I Ex Histamine released by mast cells stimulates HCl secretion from parietal cells in stomach Circulating hormones Enter interstitial uid and then the bloodstream I Lipid soluble bound to transport proteins 0 Steroid Hormones o Derived from cholesterol 0 Chemical groups attached to the core of the structure makes it unique 0 Ex cortisol testosterone estrogens progesterone aldosterone o Thyroid Hormones o Tyrosine ring With attached iodines 0 Very lipid soluble 0 Nitric Oxide o Hormone and neurotransmitter I Water soluble free 0 Peptide and Protein Hormones o chains of amino acids 0 hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones o ADH oxytocin hGH TSH ACTH 0 Help R o Insulin glucagon EPO Biogenic amines o Modified amino acids 0 Catecholamines NE epinephrine dopamine o Serotonin melatonin and histamine Eicosanoids o Derived from arachidonic acid 20 carbon fatty acid 0 Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes 0 Local Hormones Functions of Hormones egulate Extracellular uid Metabolism Biological clock Contraction of cardiac and smooth muscle Glandular secretion Some immune functions Growth and development Reproduction o Hormones only affect target cells With specific membrane or intracellular protein receptors 0 General mechanism of action 0 Steroid Bind to cell surface or receptor inside target cell Cell responds via 0 Synthesis of new molecules Change in membrane permeability Altered rates of reaction Different target cells may respond to the same hormone differently o Hepatocytes insulin stimulates glycogen synthesis Adipocytes insulin stimulates triglyceride synthesis Hormone Action Receptors typically intracellular Work by changing the level of specific gene expression 0 Peptide Hormone Action peptide hormones bind to cell surface receptors peptide hormones evoke changes in the activity of existing proteins through a second messenger e g cyclicAMP second messengers alter the phosphorylation state of existing proteins 0 Second messengers 0 Water soluble peptide hormones bind to cell surface receptors 9 production intracellular second messenger o Hormones rst messengers may increase or decrease the level of second messengers 0 Ex cAMP calcium ions cGMP 0 Same hormone may use different second messengers in different target cells I EX Norepenephrine 0 Second messengers initiate a cascade of biochemical reactions often involving phosphorylation or dephosphorylation Within the target cell
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