Criminology Chapter 12
Criminology Chapter 12 3600
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Hardison on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3600 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Andrew Fisher in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 04/26/16
Criminology Chapter 12: Economic Crimes Economic Crimes o Definition of Economy Taking care of the household o Types of Crimes Bluecollar Traditional commonlaw theft crimes such as larceny, burglary, and arson Whitecollar Crimes involving business enterprise such as embezzlement, price fixing, and bribery Greencollar Violations of laws designed to protect the environment o History of Theft Definition of Theft The intentional taking, keeping or using of another’s property without authorization or permission o Skilled thieves, smugglers, poachers Contemporary Thieves Occasional Criminals o Those who do not define themselves by a criminal role or view themselves as committed career criminals Situational inducement: opportunity or need Ex: Someone leaves their phone on the bus Professional Criminals o Offenders who make a significant portion of their income from crime o BlueCollar Crimes Larceny Taking for one’s own use the property of another by means other than force or threats on the victim or forcibly breaking into a person’s home or workplace; theft o Petty o Grand Constructive Possession When a person voluntarily gives up physical custody of their property but retains legal ownership Shoplifting The taking of goods from retail stores o Booster: professional shoplifter who steals with the intention of reselling stolen merchandise o Merchant privilege laws A merchant can detain you if they think you stole o Target removal strategy o Target hardening strategy Credit card theft Auto theft Joy riding Short or longterm transportation Profit Commission of another crime Forgery Checks Fencing Getting rid of stolen property Burglary Entering a location by force, threat, or deception with intent to commit a crime o Forcible entry o Unlawful entry where no force is used o Attempted forcible entry Careers in burglary – The Good Burglar Arson The willful, malicious burning of a home, building, or vehicle\ NOT a boat o Whitecollar crime Crimes involving business enterprise such as embezzlement, price fixing and bribery Pursuit of profit o Occupational (individual) o Business (group) Fraud Misrepresenting a fact in a way that causes a deceived victim to give money or property to the offender o Ponzi o Chiseling o Insider trading Exploitation The use of power to extract value Influence peddling Using one’s institutional position to grant favors and sell information to which one’s coconspirators are not entitled Embezzlement Larceny in which someone who is trusted with property fraudulently converts it to their own uses Corporate (organizational) crime Powerful institutions or their representatives willfully violate the laws that restrain these institutions from doing social harm or require them to do social good o Illegal restraint of trade, price fixing, deceptive pricing, false claims advertising o Controlling WhiteCollar Crime Sherman Antitrust Act Federal law that subjects to criminal or civil sanctions any person “who shall make any contract or engage in any combination or conspiracy” in restraint of interstate commerce Specifically defined as illegal: o Division of markets o Tying arrangement o Group boycott o Price fixing o Greencollar crime Actions and outcomes that harm the environment, usually when profit outweighs safety Legalist Environmental justice Biocentric o Any human activity that disrupts the biosystem is criminal “Nature has the same rights as humans” Slavoj Zizek video “More alienation” Types of crimes Worker safety/environmental crimes o 20 million workers are exposed to hazardous conditions Illegal logging o Taking trees from national parks/forests Illegal wildlife exports Illegal fishing Illegal dumping and polluting o Criminal environmental pollution: a crime involving the intentional or negligent discharge into the bio system of a toxic waste that destroys plant or animal life Environmental racism Definition o Any environmental policy, practice or directive that differentially affects or disadvantages individuals, groups or communities based on race (nationality/socioeconomic status) Minor communities take the hit of most greencollar crimes Unequal enforcement of environmental, civil rights and public health laws Differential exposure of some populations to harmful chemicals Faulty assumptions in calculating, assessing and managing risks Discriminatory zoning and landuse practices Exclusionary practices that limit some individuals and groups form participation in decision making Environmental justice framework Adopt a public health model of prevention as the preferred strategy Shift the burden of proof to those who do harm, who discriminate, and give equal protection Allow disparate impact and statistical weight or an ‘effect’ test, as opposed to ‘intent,’ to infer discrimination Redress disproportionate impact through ‘targeted’ action and resources Environmental Laws Clean Water Act (1972) Emergency Panning and Community RighttoKnow Act (1986) Endangered Species Act (1973) Oil Pollution Act (1990) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Explaining economic crime Theories of collar crimes o Rationalization o Culture o Selfcontrol Controlling economic crimes Compliance vs. Deterrence o Compliance strategies: methods of controlling crime that rely on the threat of economic sanctions or civil penalties to control potential violators, creating a marketplace incentive to obey the law o Deterrence strategies: methods of controlling crime that rely on the punishment of individual offenders to deter other violators
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