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Criminology Chapter 12

by: Kathryn Hardison

Criminology Chapter 12 3600

Kathryn Hardison

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Criminology Chapter 12
Andrew Fisher
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Hardison on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3600 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Andrew Fisher in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 04/26/16
Criminology Chapter 12: Economic Crimes  Economic Crimes o Definition of Economy  Taking care of the household o Types of Crimes  Blue­collar  Traditional common­law theft crimes such as larceny, burglary,  and arson  White­collar  Crimes involving business enterprise such as embezzlement, price  fixing, and bribery  Green­collar  Violations of laws designed to protect the environment o History of Theft  Definition of Theft  The intentional taking, keeping or using of another’s property  without authorization or permission o Skilled thieves, smugglers, poachers  Contemporary Thieves  Occasional Criminals o Those who do not define themselves by a criminal role or  view themselves as committed career criminals  Situational inducement: opportunity or need  Ex: Someone leaves their phone on the bus  Professional Criminals o Offenders who make a significant portion of their income  from crime o Blue­Collar Crimes  Larceny  Taking for one’s own use the property of another by means other  than force or threats on the victim or forcibly breaking into a  person’s home or workplace; theft o Petty o Grand  Constructive Possession  When a person voluntarily gives up physical custody of their  property but retains legal ownership  Shoplifting  The taking of goods from retail stores o Booster: professional shoplifter who steals with the  intention of reselling stolen merchandise o Merchant privilege laws  A merchant can detain you if they think you stole o Target removal strategy o Target hardening strategy  Credit card theft  Auto theft  Joy riding  Short or long­term transportation  Profit  Commission of another crime  Forgery  Checks  Fencing  Getting rid of stolen property  Burglary  Entering a location by force, threat, or deception with intent to  commit a crime o Forcible entry o Unlawful entry where no force is used o Attempted forcible entry  Careers in burglary – The Good Burglar  Arson  The willful, malicious burning of a home, building, or vehicle\  NOT a boat o White­collar crime  Crimes involving business enterprise such as embezzlement, price fixing  and bribery  Pursuit of profit o Occupational (individual) o Business (group)  Fraud  Misrepresenting a fact in a way that causes a deceived victim to  give money or property to the offender o Ponzi o Chiseling o Insider trading  Exploitation  The use of power to extract value  Influence peddling  Using one’s institutional position to grant favors and sell  information to which one’s co­conspirators are not entitled  Embezzlement  Larceny in which someone who is trusted with property  fraudulently converts it to their own uses  Corporate (organizational) crime  Powerful institutions or their representatives willfully violate the  laws that restrain these institutions from doing social harm or  require them to do social good o Illegal restraint of trade, price fixing, deceptive pricing,  false claims advertising o Controlling White­Collar Crime  Sherman Antitrust Act  Federal law that subjects to criminal or civil sanctions any person  “who shall make any contract or engage in any combination or  conspiracy” in restraint of interstate commerce  Specifically defined as illegal: o Division of markets o Tying arrangement o Group boycott o Price fixing o Green­collar crime  Actions and outcomes that harm the environment, usually when profit  outweighs safety   Legalist  Environmental justice  Biocentric o Any human activity that disrupts the bio­system is criminal  “Nature has the same rights as humans”  Slavoj Zizek video  “More alienation”  Types of crimes  Worker safety/environmental crimes o 20 million workers are exposed to hazardous conditions  Illegal logging o Taking trees from national parks/forests  Illegal wildlife exports  Illegal fishing  Illegal dumping and polluting o Criminal environmental pollution: a crime involving the  intentional or negligent discharge into the bio system of a  toxic waste that destroys plant or animal life  Environmental racism  Definition o Any environmental policy, practice or directive that  differentially affects or disadvantages individuals, groups  or communities based on race (nationality/socioeconomic  status)  Minor communities take the hit of most green­collar crimes  Unequal enforcement of environmental, civil rights and public  health laws  Differential exposure of some populations to harmful chemicals  Faulty assumptions in calculating, assessing and managing risks  Discriminatory zoning and land­use practices  Exclusionary practices that limit some individuals and groups form participation in decision making  Environmental justice framework  Adopt a public health model of prevention as the preferred strategy  Shift the burden of proof to those who do harm, who discriminate,  and give equal protection  Allow disparate impact and statistical weight or an ‘effect’ test, as  opposed to ‘intent,’ to infer discrimination  Redress disproportionate impact through ‘targeted’ action and  resources  Environmental Laws  Clean Water Act (1972)  Emergency Panning and Community Right­to­Know Act (1986)  Endangered Species Act (1973)  Oil Pollution Act (1990)  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)  Explaining economic crime  Theories of collar crimes o Rationalization o Culture o Self­control  Controlling economic crimes  Compliance vs. Deterrence o Compliance strategies: methods of controlling crime that  rely on the threat of economic sanctions or civil penalties to control potential violators, creating a marketplace incentive to obey the law o Deterrence strategies: methods of controlling crime that  rely on the punishment of individual offenders to deter  other violators


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