Hypothalamus & Anterior Pituitary
Hypothalamus & Anterior Pituitary Psio 202
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anonymous Notetaker on Thursday March 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psio 202 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Eric Price and Dr. Eugene Settle in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology 202 Lecture and Lab in Physiology at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 03/12/15
Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary o Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland O O Hypothalamus receives input from cortex thalamus limbic system and internal organs Hypothalamus provides a link between the external and internal environment and the endocrine system Hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary gland with different releasing and inhibiting hormones Hypothalamus releases other hormones directly through the posterior pituitary 0 Cell types of the Anterior Pituitary 0000 O 1 Somatotrophs secrete human Grown Hormone 2 Thyrotrophs secrete Thyroid Stimulating Hormone 3 Lactotrophs secrete Prolactin 4 Gonadotrophs secrete Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Lutenizing Hormone 5 Corticotrophs secrete Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Hypothalamus Anterior Pituitary GHRH Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone Growth Hormone GH or Somatotropin Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone GHIH or Somatostatin Growth Hormone GH or Somatotropin Thyroid Stimulating Hormone TSH Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone GnRH Lutenizing Hormone LH Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH Prolactin Releasing Hormone PRH Prolactin PRL Dopamine Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone PIH or Prolactin PRL Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone MSH Corticotropin Releasing Hormone CRH Adrenocorticotropic Hormone ACTH or Corticotropin Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone MSH Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone Thyroid Stimulating Hormone TSH or Thyrotropin 0 Human Growth Hormone O O O Produced by somatotrophs in anterior pituitary Target cells are liver skeletal muscle cartilage bone Within target cells increases synthesis of insulinlike growth factors that act locally or enter bloodstream Insulinlike growth factors I Increase cell growth and cell division by increasing the uptake of amino acids and synthesis of proteins I Stimulate lipolysis in adipose tissue so fatty acids are used for ATP I Decrease use of glucose for ATP production by most body cells so blood glucose levels remain high enough to supply brain 0 Regulation of hGH release I hGH is released in bursts every few hours I release is regulated by GHRH Growth hormone releasing hormone and GHIH Growth hormone inhibiting hormone I Stimuli for GHRH 0 Hypoglycemia deep sleep decreased fatty acids and increased amino acids in blood increased sympathetic stimulation I Stimuli for GHIH o Hyperglycemis REM sleep increased fatty acids and decreased amino acids in blood obesity low levels of thyroid hormones high levels of hGH Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH O O O Gonadotropin releasing hormone GnRH from the hypothalamus stimulates gonadotrophs in anterior pituitary to produce FSH In females FSH I Stimulates secretion of estrogen I Initiates the formation of follicles Within the ovary In males FSH I Stimulates sperm production in testes Luteinizing Hormone LH o GnRH from hypothalamus stimulates gonadotrophs in anterior pituitary to produce LH o In females LH stimulates I Secretion of estrogen and progesterone I Ovulation I Formation of corpus luteum o In males LH stimulates I Secretion of testosterone Prolactin o Hypothalamus regulates lactotroph cells by secreting PRH and PIH dopamine o Lactotrophs in anterior pituitary produce prolactin 0 Under the right conditions prolactin causes milk production 0 Suckling reduces levels of hypothalamic inhibition and prolactin levels rise along With milk production Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone MSH O O O O Secreted by corticotrophs in the anterior pituitary Excessive levels of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone CRH from the hypothalamus increases Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone MSH release from the anterior pituitary Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone PIH or Dopamine inhibits MSH release Function unclear in humans but high levels increase skin pigmentation Adrenocorticotropic Hormone ACTH O O O Corticotropin Releasing Hormone CRH from the hypothalamus stimulates corticotrophs in the anterior pituitary to release ACTH ACTH stimulates release of glucocorticoids mainly cortisol from adrenal cortex ACTH release is also stimulated by hypoglycemia physical trauma and IL 1 Thyroid Stimulating Hormone TSH O O Hypothalamus regulates thyrotrophs in anterior pituitary to produce TSH thyrotropin TSH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of T3 and T4 thyroid hormones Metabolic rate stimulated Regulation of TSH release I Hypothalamus releases thyrotropin releasing hormone TRH I TRH causes release of TSH from anterior pituitary cells I Thyroid glands activated to secrete more T3 and T4