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PSYCH 101 - Week 1 Notes

by: Cheylan Harris

PSYCH 101 - Week 1 Notes PSYCH 101

Cheylan Harris
Western Washington University
GPA 3.46
Into to Psychology

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About this Document

The first week of notes for Ericksen's Psych 101 class. Covers Chapters 1-4
Into to Psychology
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cheylan Harris on Thursday March 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 101 at Western Washington University taught by Ericksen in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Into to Psychology in Psychlogy at Western Washington University.

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Date Created: 03/12/15
Psych 101 Notes Chapter 1 Psyche conscious and unconscious mind Psychology understanding human nature through science l Why Psyche Greek goddess of the human soul l Literally means soul spirit breath life animating force Psychology Scienti c study of behavior and mental processes 0 Behavior external overt 0 Mental processes internal covert l Prevent possible biasesperspective l Precise and careful measurement Psychology39s 4 Goals Description 0 What is happening What is the person doing l Explanation 0 Why is this happening 0 Theory general explanation of observationsfacts I Prediction 0 When will it happen again Control 0 Can it be changed Psychology39s Ancestors l Plato 428 BC 347 BC 0 Nativism Certain knowledge is innate or born 0 Social constructivism Construes reality l Aristotle 384 BC 322 BC 0 Tabula rasa blank slate Philosophical empiricism All knowledge is acquired through experience Rene Descartes 1596 1650 o Dualism Mindbody problem pineal gland Consciousness World of forms mind and matter body Thomas Hobbs 1588 1679 o The mind is what the body does 0 The right of the individual equality Franz Joseph Gall 1758 1828 o Phrenology characteristics in certain areas of the brain Bumps and indentations in the skull Paul Broca 1825 1880 o Broca s area damage to area of the brain impairs language but not comprehension Carl Wernicke 1845 1905 0 Temporal lobe Wernicke s area comprehension Structuralism I POV of person experiencing o What how why Content mental processes cause and effect consciousness l Focused on basic elements of the mind 0 Wilhelm Wundt 1832 1920 Objective introspective 1879 0 Edward Titchener 1867 1927 Brought psychology to America 0 Margaret Washburn 1871 1939 First female Ph D in psychology Nonhuman animals have consciousness l Died out in 1988 Herman von Helmholtz 1821 1894 Physiology biological processes I Stimulus sensory input from the environment Reaction time response to stimulus William James 1842 1910 l Functionalism how the mind allows people to adapt live work and play 0 Educational psychology 0 Evolutionary o lndustrialorganizational Charles Darwin 1809 1882 I Illusions errors of perception Natural selection Maxwell Wertheimer 1880 1943 l Illusion of motion o Gestault the whole is more than a sum of its parts Cognitive psychology Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud o Unconscious repress 0 Early childhood experiences 0 Psychoanalytic theory 0 Therapeutic approach Human limitation Abraham Maslow 1908 1970 Carl Rogers 1902 1987 l Humanistic psychology 0 Positive potential in human beings Human potential John Watson 1878 1958 I Behaviorism o Observable behavior 0 Phobias lvan Pavlov 1849 1939 l Response 0 Stimulus l Response BF Skinner 1904 1990 l Reinforcement I quotTeaching machines I Conditioning chamber Skinner box Questioned free will Jean Piaget 1896 1980 Development of child cognition l Epistemology gaining knowledge Cognitive Neuroscience cognitive processes and brain activity All processes rely on the brain Evolutionary Psychology adaptive value of abilities preserved by natural selection Cultural Psychology how cultures shape behavior l Structuralism functionalism psychoanalysis l subjective memory thoughts opinions I Behaviorism l objective observable information I Broadbent pilot studies attention is limited Chapter 2 Methods of psychology the scienti c method Question Hypothesis Experiment Analyzeconclusion 0 Report data Empiricism how to know things Three variables make humans hard to study 0 Complexity 0 Variability no two people alike 0 Reactivity people act differently under observation Dogmatism people cling to assumptions Empiricism acquire knowledge by observation Methods rules and techniques to avoid mistakes Measurement Observe use senses to learn about properties Operational de nition reification abstract terms Measure detect measurable events Observation Sight 83 Hearing 11 Smell 3 Touch 2 Taste 1 o Validity draw accurate inferences 0 Reliability produce the same result every time 0000 Demand characteristics subjects act in a way they they think the observer expectswants Blind procedures Random sampling sample from population Descriptive methods Naturalistic observation watch in normal environment 0 Realistic picture of behavior 0 Describe as occurred 0 Observer effect Participant observation observer becomes part of the group 0 Observer bias Blind observers o All environments are different so observations may not hold Laboratory observation 0 Control over environment 0 Specialized equipment 0 Arti cial situation arti cial behavior Testable hypothesis Case study 0 One individual 0 Detail 0 Cannot apply to others Phineas Gage Surveys 0 Representative sample 0 Data from a lot of people 0 Study covert behaviors 0 People are not always accurate Blind observers Expectations change observations 0 Double blind Variables ndependentmanipuated Dependentresponding Extraneous Finding relationships Correlation o Direction and strength of correlation 1 to 1 0 is no correlation Strong or 089 Drawing conclusions Internal validity characteristics of experiment allow accurate inferences 0 Independent manipulated o Dependent measured unbiased External validity variable de ned in a realistic way Theory testable prediction Placebo and experimenter effects Blind Doubleblind Anthropomorphic error Applying human emotion to animal behavior Pseudo psychologies Phrenology Palmistry Graphology Chapter 3 Nervous System Carry information to parts of the body 0 Neurons and glial cells Neuroscience structure and functions of neurons Neuron receives and sends messages 0 Dendrites receives messages 0 Soma maintains life of cell 0 Axon carries messages to other cells 0 Myelin sheath layer of fatty material increases ef ciency Node of Ranvier uninsulated to generate electrical activity 0 Synapse junction between parts of different cells Glial Greek glue gray fatty cells hold neurons in place 0 Supply nutrients o Insulate o Destroy pathogens remove dead neurons When glial cells fail multiple sclerosis Myelin sheath deteriorates Chemical Signaling 1 Conduction of electrical signal within neuron 2 Chemicals transmit electrical signals between neurons Neural Impulse Either neuron res completely or not at all 0 lons lnside H Outside Resting potential not ring Action potential neurotransmitters released 0 Allows positive sodium to enter cell Synaptic Transmission Terminal buttons branch out from axon Neurotransmitters chemicals sent to receptors Receptors receives neurotransmitters Postsynaptic neuron receiving Presynaptic neuron sending Communication Memory problem acetylcholine Inhibitory GABA gammaamino butyric acid Paincontrolling endorphins Motor behavior emotion pleasure dopamine How drugs mimic transmitters Agonists increase action nicotine releases dopamine well being Antagonists block action Chantix decreases dopamine Nerves axons and glial cells CNS central nervous system Brain and spinal chord Re ex Arc Sensory neuron afferent neuron 0 Information from senses Motor neuron efferent neuron 0 Central nervous system Interneuron 0 From senses to muscles 0 Center of spinal chord The Human Brain Computerized axial tomography CT xrays of the brain Magnetic resonance imaging MRI detailed images Positron emission tomography PET color coded image of brain activity Brain Stem Medulla lifesustaining functions 0 Automatic Pons sleep dreaming coordination arousal Reticular formation RF attention alertness Cerebellum involuntary rapid ne motor movement Forebrain Cerebral cortex outer layer of brain two hemispheres o Densely packed neurons 0 Perceptions Corticalizationwrinkling 0 Left and right hemispheres Connected by corpus caosum 0 Four lobes Occipital visual centers Parietal touch taste temperature Temporal hearing meaningful speech Frontal decision making uent speech Subcortical structures under cerebral cortex 0 00000 Limbic system learning motivation memory emotion Thalamus relays information lters Hypothalamus temperature hunger thirst Pituitary gland hormones Hippocampus new memories Amygdala emotional memories


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