EEBIO Wk10 Notes
EEBIO Wk10 Notes Ecology and Evolutionary Biology 100
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Ecology and Evolutionary Biology 100
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Mayeda on Thursday March 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Ecology and Evolutionary Biology 100 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Johns in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Ecology and Behavior in Behavioral Sciences at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 03/12/15
Thursday March 12 2015 EEBio Wk102 Subject Ecology and Behavior EEB 100 Philip Johns philipjohns1uclaedu Humans amp Behavior Office hours philipjohns1uclaedu Tue HH 31611OO12OO Wed HH 32811OO12OO Fri HH 31611OO12OO Philip Johns Announcements Changes to Syllabus 05 amp 10 March social behavior Class 12 March TBA Review session 16 March 68 pm Moore 100 Discussion sections for Week 10 Extra office hours for review with TA s Test 18 March 11 30230 Ackerman Ballroom Watch email for other announcements Announcements TA s answering questions during discussion this week Adriana is also holding office hours Wed1011 30 Thur 11 1530 Haplodiploidy AllHymenopterabees wasps ants are haplodiploid Someotheranimalstoo including Thrips Scaleinsectsbugs Thursday March 12 2015 Somespidermites Somebeetlesnotably bark beetles httpwwwnaturecomnaturejournalv359 n6397abs359724a0html httpwwwnewscientistcomarticle dn21698zoologgerthesoldiersthat double upas doctors httpbehavzoologyunibechindexphp p46 Haplodiploidy Females diploid males haploid Mothers can make males asexually female diploid male haploid so if female leave unfertilized egg get male must be fertilized for female Haplodiploidy activity Calculate the relatedness Motherdaughter r5 Father daughter r1 or 5 Motherson r5 or1 Sistersister r75 Halfsister r25 Haplodiploidy Consequence is asymmetrical relatedness Motherdaughter R 05 Thursday March 12 2015 Sistersister R 075 Sisters more related to each other than to own offspring Hamilton amp inclusive fitness rBgtC rgtCB rO75 among sisters Helping sisters can be more advantageous than having own offspring Colonies can be viewed as factories for new queens Extra relatedness gives sisters an evolutionary reason to make more sisters rather than start new colonies working to make new queens with whom you share a lot of queens Measuring relatedness Modern genetic tools allowed us to measure relatedness directly in haplodiploid eusocial organisms Many bees wasps have low relatedness rlt 075 often rlt 025 Estimate r 075 based on fullsisters Half sisters multiple fathers per colony expect r 025 Same as halfsibs in diploid organisms Expected evolutionary advantage of haplodiploidy does not match reality at least in some species when study actual relatedness between bugs in colony didn t see what was expected according to theory Other faults with haplodiploidy hypothesis and kin selection Thursday March 12 2015 naked mole rats termites Hymenoptera bees wasps ants are haplodiploid TherearedipoidorDiplodiploideusocialorganisms No special advantage over other diploid animals colonies exist with non related individuals not just not very related not related at all Other faults with haplodiploidy hypothesis and kin selection Unrelated Individuals sometimes cooperate Primitive termitesLand some waspsR merge colonies some primitive wasps have colonies started by unrelated queens two unrelated queens start colony together families unrelated but still protect each other etc httpwwwpnasorgcontent1064117452long httpinkspringercomartice101007s0026501315697fulltexthtml httpl wwwnaturecomnaturejournalv405n6788abs405784a0html Other faults with haplodiploidy hypothesis and kin selection Many haplodiploid organisms are not eusocial egsawflies amp solitary or parasitic bees amp wasps coocoowasp are parasitic solitary meaning they don t live in colonies Evidence suggests haplodiploidy neither necessary nor sufficient for eusociality Which evidence implies haplodiploidy is not necessaryNot sufficient know its not necessary because we have diploid organisms that are eusocial naked molerat not sufficient because it doesn t apply since some like solitary haplodiploid organisms live without colonies Thursday March 12 2015 Nowak Tarnita and Wilson Notice the authors Notice the title The evolution of eusociality Notice it is an Analysis has never been paper with this heading didn t go through usual peer review authors knew if they did it would never go through and get pubHshed popularize eusociality in Nature journal kin selection may not drive eusociality Nowak Tarnita and Wilson Stirring a hornets nest Hundreds of angry responses But shouldn t be such a surprise Inclusive fitness and sociobiology Edward O Wilson Now term Evolutionary Psychology applies to humans instead of sociobiology Humans behavior and evolution I am shying away from term Evolutionary Psychology Some studies related to human evolutionampbehavior Some things to keep in mind when asking questions about human behavior Caveatl m not an evolutionary psychologist citing old studies Humans behavior and evolution Thursday March 12 2015 Topics we will cover today Kin selection in humans Challenges to studying human evolution Jealousy amp mate preference Diet Caveat not making normative statements Kin selection in humans Two topics menopause amp stepparents Menopause in humans Female humans cease to be reproductive long before the end of life doesn t occur in most primates Japanese macaque VVhy Grandmother hypothesis Women live long enough to help rear grandoffspring httponinelibrarywileycomstore1010021521187820010323330282AD BIES10383E30CO29asset1038ftppdf httpencitizendiumorgwikiEvolutionofmenopause Menopause in humans Natural popuation of The Gambia BottomLeftmodeed menopause at different ages Centereffect of mother amp grandmother on child survival Right Model optimum age of menopause in human groups lots of child mortality in nature Thursday March 12 2015 that s why we survive once you get past age of 10 good chance of survival toddlers survive much better with grandma around not as important for infant effect of age on menopause of growth of the group somewhat a measure of group aness if close to age of 55 that is optimum real life it is about 52 so pretty close to optimum may have evolved and been chosen for inclusive fitness menopause really early it s bad around 45 yrs http rspb royalsocietypublishing orgcontent2741 6282943 Menopause in whales Postreproductive females lead pods J16aboveis an exampleabove left leaving the pod freq distr of females and males leaving the pod females leaving more often leaders of killer whale pods are menopausal females httpnewssciencemagorgbiology201503menopausalkillerwhalesarefamily leaders httpnewssciencemagorg201209adultkillerwhalesneedtheirmamas httpwwwcellcomcurrentbiologyabstract8096098221500069X Stepparents amp child abuse Children under 3yo living with one nongenetic parent at least 7 times more likely to be victims of abuse youngest ages prone to abuse if have one natural parent and one stepparent when compared to kid with two natural parents Does this make sense not genetically related Thursday March 12 2015 Kin selection Cinderella Effect in Depression years farmers have to have wives so if someone died or got sick farmers got remarried quickly and often the stepparents were abusive hard economic times this becomes more common httpwwwsciencedirectcomsciencearticlepii0162309585900123 httpwwwcepucsbedubulIercinderela 020effect 020factspdf Stepparents amp child abuse A caveat Child abuse is relatively rare The overwhelming majority of step parents do not abuse children Challenges to studying evolution of human behaviors List some observational studies confounding variables did a pattern evolve before cultures differentiated our do cultures behave different ways according to different environments How do we test hypothesis just so stories cannot easily test fitness outcomes birth control hard to know how much humans have evolved recently assumptions related to that sample size n1 humans Challenges saber toothed cat example Thursday March 12 2015 This is an example of n 1 how much we can infer Great big canines Not very good teethbreak easilyforce required PMJAn ornament sexual ornament like monkey mandril can t measure fitness of these extinct animals predict males have bigger canines than females httpnewssciencemagorgpaleontology201410canopenercats httpwwwjstororgstable4524203 Challenges saber toothed cat example females and males have same sized teeth Not very sexually dimorphic Smilodon fatalis appears to have been significantly less dimorphic than living or fossil lions and more comparable to solitary living felids in canine and skull size dimorphism Thus it seems unlikely that S fatalis had a polygynous breeding structure like lions in which males compete intensely for access to females not sexually selected for canine size used fangs like can opener twist neck of prey with teeth hypothesis in paper below with sample size of one species can t tell httpnewssciencemagorgpaleontology201410canopenercats httpswwwsciencenewsorgblogwildthingshowsabertoothedcatcanopener httpwwwjstororgstable4524203 Challenges saber toothed mammals look across multiple species Thursday March 12 2015 Across saber toothed mammals good evidence for sexual selection slope very different rest of teeth match other species just fangs are different But can we extrapolate to Smilidon hard to make inferences httpjournasplosorgplosonearticleid101371journalpone0072868 Human mating behavior jealousy Questionnaire given to male and female college students And responses guys much more jealous than girls Let s assume this pattern is reaWhy do we see it guys don t have paternity assurance so something like having partner having affair has severe fitness consequences httppsssagepubcomcontent34251short httpwwwsciencedirectcomsciencearticlepiiS1090513801000782 httpwwwjstororgstable27858334 Human mating behavior female amp male preferences 37 different cultures questionnaire on a 03 scale Why might we see this pattern females on average think its important that partner s have good financial prospects more so than men males value looks in partner more than females odd in nature males are the pretty ones and in human culture we emphasize female beauty httpendyffrynamanorgpsychologywpcontentuploadssites9201401Mixedpdf 1O 11 Thursday March 12 2015 Diet what humans evolved to eat Paleo diet Assumes humans healthiest when eating a diet similar to what humans ate in the paleolithic era 25 MYA to 10KYA High protein high fat low carb no dairy wheat or legumes Makes sense or does it httpncpsagepubcomcontent256594long httpthepaleodietcomthepaleodietblog httpwwwcnncom20140107healthbestdietsranked Diet have humans stopped evolving No By some genetic measures human evolution accelerating Lossofresolutionlt5KYA Some of fastest evolving genes are for diet reason agriculture Many human groups have had some form of agriculture for about 10000 years httpwwwpnasorgcontent1045220753ful Diet lactose tolerance persistence all mammals have milk but most lost tolerance after childhood Strong selection for lactose tolerancepersistencein humans Many human cultures grew around herding corresponding lactose tolerance had a lot of time to build tolerance Lactose tolerance in Northern Europe precedes cattle farming odd but it didn t precede reindeer farming must have originally had reindeer milk Thursday March 12 2015 httpwwwnaturecomngjournalv35n4fullng1263html httprstbroyalsocietypublishingorgcontent3661566863 httpwwwncbinlmnihgovpmcarticlesPMC1182075pdfAJHGV74p1111pdf Diet fire amp cooking Archeologicalpaleontological evidence refutes some aspects of paleo diet they ate starches carbs veggies actually did eat starches Long before agriculture humans started using fire Which also changed our diet and our ability to process foods httpnewssciencemagorgarchaeology201406neandertalsatetheirveggies theirfecesreveal httpwwwsciencemagorgcontent331I6013131short httpwwwsciencemagorgcontent30757118401 summary httpnewssciencemagorgarchaeology201409ancient campfiresledrise storytelling Diet what humans evolved to eat DNA from Neanderthalbones reveals they taste bitter where we taste sweet We have up to 20 copies of salivary amylase genes starts breaking down starches compared to ancient humans having one Both we and Neanderthals lack a gene that causes chimps to grow strong chewing muscles probably a result of cooking httpnewssciencemagorgarchaeology201502how modernhumansatetheir wayworlddominance httpwwwsciencedirectcomsciencearticlepiiSOO47248414002644 My take on evolutionary questions of human behavior 12 Thursday March 12 2015 Should we ask questions of how human behaviors evolved Of courseWe re scientists Recognize the difference between hypotheses and tests of those hypotheses Subject claims to some scrutinybe smart Test assumptionsask how could we tell Genetic and genomic tools are giving us more and better ways to ask and answer real questions about the evolution of behaviors httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvBMOjVYgYaGS 13
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