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Chapter 4 Notes

by: Bella

Chapter 4 Notes 101

Marketplace > University at Buffalo > 101 > Chapter 4 Notes
Introductory Psychology
Larry Hawk

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Introductory Psychology
Larry Hawk
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bella on Thursday March 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at University at Buffalo taught by Larry Hawk in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views.


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Date Created: 03/12/15
O 09 Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception Sensation gt The awareness of properties of an object or event that occurs when a type of receptor such as those at the back of the eye in the ear on the skin is stimulated Perception gt The act of organizing and interpreting sensory input as signaling a particular object or event Psychophysics gt The study of the relation between physical events and the corresponding experience of those events Threshold gt The point at which stimulation is strong enough to be noticed Absolute threshold gt The smallest amount of a stimulus needed in order to detect that the stimulus is present lustnoticeable difference IND gt The size of the difference in a stimulus property needed for the observer to notice that a change has occurred Weber s Law gt The rule that a constant percentage of a magnitude change is necessary to detect a difference 9 v Signal detection theory gt A theory explaining why people detect signals independently of bias the theory is based on the idea that signals are always embedded in noise and thus the Challenge is to distinguish signal from noise 339 Sensitivity gt In signal detection theory the threshold level for distinguishing between a stimulus and noise the lower the threshold the greater the sensitivity 3 Bias gt In signal detection theory a person s willingness to report noticing a stimulus Reported Signal Yes No Yes Miss Signal Amplitude gt The height of the peaks in a light wave Frequency gt The number of waves per second that move past a given point Wavelength gt The distance between the arrival of peaks of a light wave measured in nanometers shorter wavelengths correspond to higher frequencies Transduction gt The process whereby physical energy is converted by a sensory neuron into neural impulses Pupil gt The opening in the eye through which light passes Iris gt The circular muscle that adjusts the size of the pupil Cornea gt The transparent covering over the eye which serves partly to focus the light onto the back of the eye Accommodation gt Occurs when muscles adjust the shape of the lens so that it focuses light on the retina from objects at different distances Retina gt A sheet of tissue at the back of the eye containing cells that convert light to neural impulses 9 v Fovea gt The small central region of the retina with the highest density of cones and the highest resolution 3 Rods gt Rodshaped retinal cells that are very sensitive to light but register only shades of grey 3 Cones gt Coneshaped retinal cells that respond most strongly to one of three wavelengths of light the combined outputs from cones that are most sensitive to different wavelengths play a key role in producing color vision Cornea 7 Retina Fovea O t39 Blood vessels Iris Lens O 09 Gestalt laws of organization gt A set of rules describing the circumstances such as proximity good continuation similarity closure and good form under which marks will be grouped into perceptual units I Perceptual constancy the perception of characteristics that occurs when an object or quality such as shape or color looks the same even though the sensory information striking the eyes change I Size constancy seeing an object as being the same size when viewed at different distances I Shape constancy seeing objects as having the same shape even when the image on the retina changes I Color constancy seeing objects as having the same color in different viewing situations Binocular cues gt Cues to the distance of an object that arise from both eyes working together Monocular static cues gt Used to determine distance short or long and can be picked up with only one eye Motion cues gt Specify the distance of an object on the basis of its movement and these cues work as well with one eye as with two Chemical Senses gt Taste and smell which rely on sensing the presence of specific chemicals v Extrasensory perception ESP gt The ability to perceive and know things without using the ordinary senses v Bottomup Processing gt Processing that is initiated by stimulus input v Topdown Processing gt Processing that is guided by knowledge expectation or belief v Perceptual set gt The sum of your assumptions and beliefs that lead you to expect to perceive certain objects or characteristics in particular contexts v Somasthetic senses gt Senses that have to do with perceiving the body and its position in space specifically kinesthetic sense vestibular sense touch temperature sensitivity pain sense and possibly magnetic sense 3 Kinesthetic Sense gt The sense that registers the movement and position of the limbs 3 Vestibular Sense gt The sense that provides information about the body s orientation relative to gravity 3 Trichromatic theory of color vision gt The theory that color vision arises from the combinations of neural impulses from three different kinds of sensors each of which responds maximally to a different wavelength 339 Opponent process theory of color vision O 90 O 90 O 90 O 90 gt The theory that if a color is present it causes cells that register it to inhibit the perception of the complementary color such as red versus green Retinex Vision Theory gt The perception of an image results from the retina and the cortex rather than just the spectral composition of light stimulus Afterimage gt The image left behind by a previous perception Opponent cells gt Cells that pit the colors in a pair most notably blue yellow or red green against each other Color blindness gt An inability either acquired by brain damage or inherited to perceive certain hues


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