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Ch.22 notes

by: Erica Notetaker

Ch.22 notes CHEM 120B

Erica Notetaker

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This is the first half . Know reactants, products, and enzymes!
General, Organic and Biological Chemistry
Dr. Lawrence P. Norcio
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Notetaker on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 120B at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville taught by Dr. Lawrence P. Norcio in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see General, Organic and Biological Chemistry in Chemistry at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.


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Date Created: 04/26/16
Chapter 22 Notes Terms to Know Metabolism- chemical reactions that provide energy or substance for growth Catabolic- break down molecules, release ATP Anabolic- build up molecules, requires ATP Coenzymes: - Can either gain or lose electrons ( if gain electrons= reduced, if lose electrons= oxidized) 1. NAD+ - Contains Vitamin B3 for energy from meats and liver - Dehydrogenation reactions - Reduced form= NADH/H+ - Oxidized form= NAD+ 2. FAD - Contains Vitamin B2 from dairy and liver - Contains ADP, riboflavin, and ribitol - Reduced form= FADH2 w/ succinate dehydrogenase 3. Coenzyme A - Contains Vitamin B5 from meats and broccoli - Contains pantothenic acid, ADP, and aminoethanethiol - Produce Acetyl-CoA Stages of Catabolism: 1. Digestion - Begins in mouth -> stomach -> intestines -> bloodstream -> cells - Physical (grinding, softening, mixing of food) - Chemical (with alpha-amylase for an hour until stomach acid inactivate it) 2. Cellular Degradation (inside cell) a.) Pentose Phosphate Pathway - Glucose-6-phoshate enters - Supply NADPH for fatty acids synthesize - Supply ribose-5-phoshate for DNA/RNA synthesize b.) Glycogenesis - Anabolic (builds up) - Glucose -> glycogen if the cell has enough glucose already - 3 Reactions 1. Isomerization - Glucose-6-phoshate -> glucose-1-phoshate - Enzyme= phosphoglucomutase 2. Activation - Glucose-1-phoshate and UTP -> UDP- glucose and PPi - Enzyme= pyrophosphorylase 3. Glycogen synthesis - UDP glucose - Activated by insulin - Inhibited by glucagon, epinephrine, and adrenaline - Enzyme= glycogen synthase c.) Glycolysis - 1 molecule of glucose -> 2 molecules of pyruvate - Needs 2 ATP - Produce 2 more ATP - In cytosol - 10 Reactions 1. Phosphorylation - Adding phosphate group with ATP - Glucose -> glucose-6-phosphate and ADP - Enzyme= hexokinase 2. Isomerization - Glucose-6-phosphate -> fructose-6-phosphate - Enzyme= phosphoglucose isomerase 3. Phosphorylation - Fructose-6-phosphate -> fructose-1,6-biphosphate - Enzyme= phosphofructokinase 4. Cleavage - Fructoe-1,6-biphosphate -> dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde- 3-phoshate - Enzyme=aldolase 5. Isomerization - Dihydroxyacetone phosphate -> glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate - Enzyme= triose phosphate isomerase 6. Oxidation and Phosphorylation - Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate -> 1.3-biphosphoglycerate - Enzyme= glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 7. Phosphate Transfer - 1 production of ATP; 2 molecules - 1,3-biphosphate -> 3-phosphoglycerate - Enzyme= phosphoglyceratekinase 8. Isomerization - 3-phosphoglycerate -> 2-phosphoglycerate - Enzyme= phosphoglycerate mutase 9. Dehydration - 2-phosphate -> phosphoenolpyruvate - Enzyme= enolase 10. Phosphate Transfer - Phosphoenolpyruvate -> 2 ADP, 2 Pyruvate, and 2 ATP - Enzyme= pyruvate kinase


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