Week 9 Psychology Notes Higginbotham
Week 9 Psychology Notes Higginbotham Psych 105- Intro to Psychology
Popular in Psych 105
Psych 105- Intro to Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Silverman on Friday March 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 105- Intro to Psychology at Washington State University taught by Jessica Higginbotham in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Psych 105 in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
Reviews for Week 9 Psychology Notes Higginbotham
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/13/15
3915 Language What are the characteristics of language 1 Symbols letters etc 2 Syntax structure meaning 3 Shared 4 Displacement talk about something that already happened or something that will happen 5 Generative generate new meanings from different words language is growing Language and Thinking Language determines how we think Animal cognitioncomparative cognition the study of animal learning memory thinking and language Intelligence How do we measure intelligence Francis Galton 1883 Figuring out how intelligent people work and measuring intelligence There are reflexes for strength and stamina as well as the circumference of one s head Alfred Binet 1905 BinetSimon Test Mental Age Mental level is expressed in terms of the average abilities of a given age group They become parasites that consume without any benefit to society the work of hale and healthy men talking about children in schools that are below average They take away from people who are at average or above average intelligence Transition from abnormal childhood to criminal childhood On his test he asked things like which of these two pictures are prettier and show them a picture of children and women in a kitchen The Idiot Object tracking coordinating head and eye movement to track a lit match Grasping provoked by tactile excitation Grasping provoked by visual perception Knowledge of food discrimination task Foodseeking complicated by a minor mechanical difficulty wrapped candy Following simple directions and imitation of simple gestures Differentiating idiocy and imbecility Verbal knowledge of objects where is your head Verbal knowledge of images where is the window Naming indicated objects Comparison of two lines of different lengths Repeat back 3 things Differentiating imbecility and debility Drawing from memory Immediate repetition of numbers Similarities between several known objects Comparison of lengths Etc Differentiating debility and normality Reply to an abstract question Reversal of the hands on an analog clock Paper cutting Definition of abstract terms Intelligence Lewis Terman 1916 StanfordBinet Intelligence Scale Intelligence Quotient IQ Mental AgeChronological Age 100 IQ David Wechsler 1916 Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS Variety of Mental Abilities Personality Motivation Cultural Factors Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children WISC Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Q Score Distribution Standard Distribution bell curve Majority are between 85115 100 is immediately average Psychometrics Standardization Given to many people Representative of group Scores establish the norm Normal curve normal distribution standard distribution Reliability Consistently produce similar scores on different occasions Validity Measure what is supposed to measure Predictive value Achievement test Level of knowledge Aptitude test Assess capacity to benefit from education or training The G Factor General intelligence idea that there are many abilities that make you intelligent You either had them all or you didnt Louis Thurstone Primary Mental Abilities Verbal comprehension Numerical ability Reasoning Perceptual Speed Multiple Intelligences Howard Gardner Linguistic Intelligence LogicalMathematical Intelligence Musical Intelligence Spatial Intelligence BodilyKinesthetic Intelligence Interpersonal Intelligence Intrapersonal Intelligence Naturalistic Intelligence Chapter 8 Emotion What is Emotion 3 distinct components Subjective experience Physiological response Behavioral or expressive response How are emotions different than mood Emotions are more acute and instantaneous The Basic Emotions Scared 39 Happy Disgust Surprised 39 Angry Sad Hardwired evolutionary displaying and perceiving But can be blended complex multifaceted Extends across cultures Blind people Expression of emotion is fine Perception is impaired The Duchenne Smile GuillaumeBenjaminAmand Duchenne de Boulogne Duchenne electrically simulation facial expression 1860 s A real smile will cause the corners of the mouth to turn up cheekbones raised and crows feet around the eyes 31115 Emotions Why Motivation Expenence Decision making Emotional intelligence Capacity to understand and manage emotional experiences perceptions and responses iClicker Using what you have learned about neuroscience which of these limbic areas is most likely responsible for fear response A Hypothalamus B Amygdala C Hippocampus The Amygdala Direct Route Amygdala instant fear response Visual cortex interpretation Threat detected Indirect Longer Route Visual cortex interpretation Thalamus Amygdala fear response Amygdala triggers Hypothalamus SNA cortisol Sympathetic Nervous System The Hot Headed Increased heart rate Slightly increased blood pressure Decreased skin temperature The Cold Feet Increased heart rate Increased blood pressure Increased temperature Emotion Across Cultures Across cultures Facial expressions Intonation Body language in general Display rules Social and cultural regulations governing human expression JamesLange Theory of Emotion Facial Feedback Hypothesis expression of an emotion causes subjective experience of emotion People with botox often experience dampening of emotional expression and less likely to recognize emotional expressions in others We don t tremble and run because we are afraid we are afraid because we tremble and run Walter Cannon 1927 1 Physiological reactions are similar in many emotions 2 Behavioral reactions are often faster than physiological 3 Artificially inducing physiological changes does not induce emotion 4 Emotional reactions occur without the CNS TwoFactor Theory of Emotion 1 Physiological arousal 2 Cognitive label for arousal Schachter amp Singer 1962 a Participants receive injection of epinephrine b Informed vs not informed c Experience situation that is either irritating or humorous Little support by research Cognitive Appraisal Theory of Emotion Emotional responses are triggered by a cognitive evaluation Smith amp Lazarus 1988 Emotions are caused by cognitive appraisal and personal meaning So how do we explain emotion Emotions are triggered in multiple ways Complex emotions pride shame guilt Simple emotions fear excitement joy The MampMs Study 79 children from lower middle class and lower class homes StanfordBinet IQ Increased average of 12 pts Experiment is repeated years later Low med high IQ groups 79 to 97 average in low group Was their real IQ 79 or 97 The children were less motivated to do well Characteristics of Motivation ACTIVATION initiation or production of behavior PERSISTENCE continued determination to achieve goal INTENSITY the vigor of motivated behavioral responses MOTIVATION the forces acting on an organism to initiate and direct behavior httpyoutube9hdSLiHaJ28 Posted for Friday clicker quiz on it Motivational Theories Instinct Theories Motivation stems from evolutionary programing Labels behavior opposed to explaining Fell out of favor in 1920 s DriveReduction Theories desire to reduce internal tension of unmet biological needs Homeostasis What can this theory not explain Anything long term we re planners Sometimes we don t eat because we re hungry but because it tastes good or we re bored Arousal Theory Behavior seeks to maintain an optimal level of arousal Sensation seekers Humanistic Theories Motivation is affected by how we perceived the world others ourselves and our beliefs about our abilities Personal potential Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs Characteristics of SelfActualization RealismAcceptance accurate perceptions of themselves others reality Spontaneity open behaviorthoughts conform easily Problem Centering focus outside themselves Autonomy privacy independence Continued Appreciation appreciation of simplicity Peak Experiences moments of wonderawe where sense of self is lost
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'