Psychology Notes 4/26/16 Exam 4
Psychology Notes 4/26/16 Exam 4 1557
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Metzgar on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1557 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Manos Akillas in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see General Psychology (PSY 11) in Psychlogy at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 04/26/16
Social Factors Neo Freudians and Social Factors -personality development depends a lot on social factors -saw a big importance in each person's experiences within their life Fundamental Attribution Error -people have the tendency to explain things differently depending on if they’re explaining something that happened to themselves (usually external) or other people (typically internal) -external: what happened to them is the fault of the situation -internal: what happened to the other person is their own fault Zimbardo Experiment and Role Conformity -people change their behavior based on the role they have at a certain time ex) police officers on duty vs. off duty Experiment: Zimbardo took students and assigned half of them to be prisoners and the other half to be guards. The guards soon became very aggressive towards the prisoners, and the experiment had to be stopped. Overall, it highly enforced how powerful role conformity is. Psychological Testing -used as a measurement for things -has to have certain characteristics Reliabilityshould give consistent results Validity:whether or not it measures what you want it to *it is possible to have a reliable, yet not valid test Standardization:you have to give the test to a large group of people before you can start your experiment in order to create a baseline to then compare the results of your experiment to in the future Cognitive Tests -Achievement Tests: measure a specific ability -Aptitude Tests: measure future performance (potential, overall skill) -Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) -most common intelligence test -gives you 3 IQ numbers 1. Overall 2. Verbal (based on language) 3. Performance (based on things like solving puzzles) -this system is useful because some people perform better in one category than the other Support and Criticisms of the IQ Tests -do they really measure intelligence? -not true experiments, they’re correlational with other factors that are unrelated such as genetics and life experiences -have shown that intelligence tests can predict academic performance and ability, but not overall life success Personality Tests Self-Report -straight forward questions asked to the person for them to answer -Advantages:very easy to administer, can reach a large audience rather quickly -Disadvantagespeople can lie about their answers intentionally or unintentionally Projective Tests -almost the exact opposite of self-report -when people see something they don’t understand they tend to use things about themselves to explain the situation ex) good mood, good situation -advantagesnot possible for people to lie in their answers -disadvantagesvery difficult to use, only those highly trained can use them, can be very time consuming Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) -20 pictures showing people doing things and viewers are instructed to create a story of what’s happening in the situations -psychologists look for themes among the stories Rorschach -people are presented with ink blots on cards and are asked to describe what they look like using their own creativity and experimenters look for patterns and pay attention to how the person is handling the test
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