Advanced Theories of Chemical Bonding
Advanced Theories of Chemical Bonding CHEM 1127Q 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitrín Hall on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1127Q 001 at University of Connecticut taught by Fatma Selampinar (TC), Joseph Depasquale (PI) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 04/26/16
Chapter 8 Advanced Theories of Chemical Bonding 8.1 Valence Bond Theory Valence bond theory describes a covalent bond as the overlap of half-filled atomic orbitals (each containing a single electron) that yield a pair of electrons shared between the two bonded atoms Orbitals on two different atoms overlap when portions of two orbitals occupy the same region of space 2 conditions must be met: 1. An orbital on one atom overlaps an orbital on a second atom 2. The single electrons in each orbital combine to form an electron pair More overlap stronger covalent bond Energy of system depends on how much the orbitals overlap Number of covalent bonds depends on number unpaired electrons 8.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals Hybridization – the process of combining the wave functions for atomic orbitals; mathematically accomplished by the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) o Hybrid orbitals are produced o Sigma (σ) bond – a covalent bond in which the electron density is concentrated in the region along the internuclear axis; single bonds o Pi (π) bond – type of covalent bond that results from the side- by-side overlap of two p orbitals; regions of orbital overlap lie on opposite sides of the internuclear axis 1. Hybrid orbitals do not exist in isolation 2. Hybrid orbitals have shapes and orientations different from those of the atomic orbitals in isolated atoms 3. A set of hybrid orbitals is generated by combining atomic orbitals (# hybrid orbitals per set = # atomic orbitals that were combined to produce the set 4. All orbitals in a set of hybrid orbitals are equivalent in shape and energy 5. The type of hybrid orbitals formed depends on its electron-pair geometry (VSEPR) 6. Hybrid orbitals overlap to form sigma bonds; unhybridized orbitals overlap to form pi bonds sp hybridization – one s orbital and one p orbital hybridize to make two sp orbitals; the central atom is surrounded by two regions of valence electron density sp hybridization – one s orbital and two p orbitals hybridize to make 2 three sp orbitals; the central atom is surrounded by three regions of valence electron density sp hybridization – one s orbital and three p orbitals hybridize to make 3 four sp orbitals; the central atom is surrounded by four regions of valence electron density 3 sp hybridization – one s orbital and three p orbitals hybridize to make four sp orbitals; the central atom is surrounded by four regions of valence electron density 3 sp d hybridization – one s orbital, three p orbitals, and one d orbital hybridize to make five sp d orbitals; the central atom is surrounded by five regions of valence electron density sp d hybridization – one s orbital, three p orbitals, and two d orbitals hybridize to make six sp d orbitals; the central atom is surrounded by six regions of valence electron density 8.3 Multiple Bonds Hybridization involves only sigma bonds, lone pairs of electrons, and single unpaired electrons; the arrangement of pi bonds involves only unhybridized orbitals o Single bond = 1 sigma bond o Double bond = 1 sigma bond and 1 pi bond o Triple bond = = 1 sigma bond and 2 pi bonds
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