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one week 1/9-1/13 BIOL:1141:0AAA
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Jilek on Friday March 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL:1141:0AAA at University of Iowa taught by Kenneth Mason in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Animal Biology in Biology at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 03/13/15
WEEK 6 Membrane Transport of 02 and C02 Is 02 polar or nonpolar o Nonpolar ls C02 polar or nonpolar o Nonpolar How will these be transported across the membrane 0 Transport intoout of cells by cell diffusion So it s all about concentration differences Function of Respiration Cellular respiration produces C02 Cellular respiration produces C02 Exchange of these gases is by simple diffusion across capillaries o Diffusion operates only over about 1 mm Animals larger than 2mm think need 0 Respiratory system exchange gases 0 Circulatory system transport gases nutrients waste 0 Page 664 0 Figure 353 StructureFunction of Lungs Trachea leads into the lungs o Branches into two bronchi 0 Each branch into bronchioles smaller 0 Bronchioles terminate in alveoli increase surface area Function of lungs is gas exchange 0 Gas exchange with blood occurs in capillary beds 0 Gas exchange involves simple diffusion Consider concentration of 02C02 in lungs 39 g game can V Epimalia39l 77 r r v l l 7 Flu A l 4 r J 77 1 1 blind Flow 39 z 39 39 quot tilting slaw particle j FEESBl m1 mammary l E pmmumw a miule WEEquot D Q l r phan mucus quot u M lvr K 1 J V I I I Elilglo ls I br mm gitHis I a Initan trachea momma quot Eiml ht lu F lung 39 m gm a Fine Fraili tn air 1 amncmm mm lm 50 How Does Air Get in the Lungs Do our lungs pump air in from the outside NO our lungs work by creating 0 Movement of diaphragm changes size of chest cavity 0 Contract muscles in diaphragm and increase vmume 0 Chest cavity expands and increases volume 0 Reduces pressure in lungs air rushes in Relax muscles 0 Chest cavity contracts lungs recoil and expelaw 1 quot L Hie eege iiniereee iel mueelee up end nut lunge Diaphragm centimetre end meeee duewen ung When preeeere imlwmge deereeeee eiir melhimg win ri h eege i I x V h J i 39 Fiib eagle imeeee iiiewe end irli E ii pree eu re inlunge i n ere ee ee ei r ie peelh ed eel Oxygen Transport to Tissue Transport across membrane is by diffusion Rate varies with permeability surface area and concentration 0 Problem solubility for 02 in water is low low concentration How can you increase 02 transport 0 Increase flow rate 0 Increase solubility Flow rate required 0 So need to increase solubility Hemoglobin Protein carrier that increase 02 solubility Can analyze function based on binding curve Plot percent 02 bound saturated vs 02 concentration 0 Concentration of gas is measured as pressure 0 In mixtures more accurately a partial pressure I Oxygen Binding by Hemoglobin Hemogobin consists of 2 alpha and 2 betaglobin chains Each globin chain contains a Heme group with Fe atom 0 Each heme group can bind 1 02 Thus each Hb can bind 4 02 0 Binding is cooperative rst is slowest Subsequent 02 bind more rapidly Produces a sigmoid S shaped curve Hemogobin binding curve LialFt sllmi t Decreased temp 39 Decreased 2 WHEN Decreased ElH1 ED Ii 1 I TD 5 39f Rightshi reduced as l39inity Increased temp Increased i3 DPS Increased Hl 39Dx herni g abim il lailgisiaturataiginj A i i i I i i ii i ii I u in an Jim in W W m 51 mm Pm llmmHgl LE 39Anaesthesi a C02 Transport to Tissue C02 is transported primarily as bicarbonate ion HCO3 C02 reacts with water to from carbonic acid H2CO3 C02 H20 l H2CO3 l H HCO3 Reaction catalyzed by enzyme carbonic anhydrase in RBC Your body uses this equilibrium to transport C02 Exhn a l ms lrati Elf will hlln If Ell39l EEEE 1lIllr39niIrIll pulmnnargil arlery EiiSIEMiE Islain l i r i w l l n39 quot 7 miquot v r i39 39 39 7 l g I In l I l HIV quoti39 r i I i l n V J I I 1 7r a a ll Ll l l I V 7 A r 1 I Z39al V 39 l J r r r g l 39 a L h 3 1 39i39 I a l gt V H 1 r 7 WA v r l a U 1 I 39b 1 l x 7 7 gt r V L i H 7 V l 77 7 1 jquot J in l l l l V 39 1quotquot l l i I l l Ill H l u 39i g c n V v l I 39 5H 39 A 3 l lall l E Flrallm I 3 Ira 39V 39 7 ll 39 I I l l I 39i I I inE TIEIIl E Inland I mm himtil Homeostasis One of the most important concepts in biology Maintenance of constant internal environment despite uctuating external environment Acts at the level of cells l Organ systems Organism EXAMPLE Fluid electrolyte osmotic balance 0 Function of the excretory system Negative Feedback Homeostasis depends on negative feedback Requires sensor integrator to interpret Below set point causes response Stop response when above set point Often two control systems in opposite directions like a thermostat Each with negative feedback Euratrial EEI HEF sends aw tn tiherm stat BEEF direms furnace in turn cuff A A11 5 set mint negative EEdE JaEk and return tn normam tuesmapera lmre i u stimulus 39 H quot negative faadna laz and return ta mammal ie mpezraturg gt quot Contra genital dII EGIE fumace 7v in mm aquot SEW15 data m r a n thE Tf l Et TE gas a 53m t pain aende data ta Central eerrter 9336 eel peinrt39 eeatrel een ter Seneer aireete reapenae re etimulue quotiE eer 3H Bleed ueeeele dilate awea r gganee eeerte negative feedback enrj return tie nermal temperature negative feedbaek and return t39e nermal Bleed ueaeela earratriet eweat glanele are irraetiua direete reeperree t stimulus E entrelli eerrter 39Q Ei l F39 ear rpeihnt eesnae data a I ee ntrel reenter Issues with Water Remember we are carrying around a bag of water Causes problems with osmolarity internally vs externally Two ways to solve osmoconformers or osmoregulators Reguating osmolarity depends on environment Consider marine vs freshwater sh Hyper vs hypotonic environment salt water vs fresh Terrestrial organisms must prevent loss of water Problems of Metabolic Waste Metabolism produces a variety of waste products Most important is nitrogenous waste From breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids Waste is soluble like other things we want to keep Need to remove waste but keep water glucose ions etc Key organ is the kidney Excretory system maintains blood osmolarity Osmolarity is measure of total solute concentration Nitrogenous Waste Why is it a problem Most forms are toxic Three forms of nitrogenous waste made by vertebrates Ammonia NH3 toxic liquid 0 Not much energy is used to produce Urea less toxic liquid Uric Acid toxic solid but no water loss 0 Prevents water loss Getting rid of liquid waste is a problem loss of H20 Kidney Processing of liquid waste occurs in the kidney Main processing unit of kidney is nephron Blood in through renal artery out through renal vein Bood is ltered and processed in nephron Ex imagine lter paper push the liquid and small things through so the big stuff is left behind Fluid ltrate with all soluble material enters tubule Moves glucose salts etc back to blood Move water selectively back to blood Whatever is left in tubule is discarded as urine Anatomy of the Kidney Consist of cortex outer and medulla inner Packed with many nephrons Some are primarily in the cortex 0 Some extend deep into the medulla Plumbing 0 Renal artery and vein are major blood vessels Ureter is tube that shunts waste uid to bladder Bladder is storage site for waste uid Structure of Nephron Consists of tubule system and associated capillaries Glomerular capillary bed that feeds tubule system 0 Site of ltration ltrate enters renal tubule Renal tubules consist of 4 segments 0 Proximal Convoluted Tubule PCT close to o Distal Convoluted Tubule DCT farther from 0 Loop of Henle 0 Collecting Duct CD 13 Hidnaya graduate urine nah li39 i39l Ei39IE 39 III i ii mn il aic m EDITH lir39lr39cl39ilii 39 worm Eliaan a l l l quot 1 a Ul39gmmmr39 m 71 l l s unma i l r FIFV b 1 l 39f 3 Urinary blindliar I Sall l39 HillIF l ll u l i dz Urethra passe5 l l urine in wlgi a nephmrmg renal N renal quotr ureter renal artery and vein rental pyramid irl renal meadru lla a Grass anarcrmy DDHEH medulla 1 T renal Pam b Twn mep hurcma Renal Endive gimme Mar mails ammunl a capsule gzllarnemlm Ei39FHEFII If A I l l 39 IF J y 7 a i renal 39n39 li l i l gtl 39 v l r l s 1 39 7 a7 91 l 1 H l l l a v quota li 39 v 939 3 Lean a male limb 39aral d 39 1 HE l llil 41539 naphmn and its bleed supply e erem manale allemm manzip glomerulus dl i l 39 cum lmed tubule minimal I C l n39 lidi UIZIIJIEJ l glamarul ar quot capaul e u I lj39 a 1 E I it Elf g D1 gl rncplus l mnmm mailES 51339 cmlwing u i capillaries Erma sedans m a lump nannmn limbs and mllan ng duet IiThe Either garmas semians are mm a l capillaricsai Kidney Function Kidney has three basic functions 0 Filtration o Fluid moves from glomerulus to Bowmans capsule 0 Remove uid leave cells large proteinsparticles o Reabsorption takes place in renal tubules 0 Moves water solutes from tubule back to blood 0 Secretion takes place in renal tubules 0 Moves substances from blood to tubule Things to Think About Concerned with movement of water and solutes From tubule system to blood reabsorption From blood to tubule system secretion lmportant to understand direction of movement 0 Types of membrane transport involved 0 Active transport of salt and glucose 0 Diffusion of solutes o Osmosis H20 moves from low gt high osmolarity Reabsorption Selective reabsorption occurs in the proximal tubule 0 Salt and glucose are transported out of tubule o This requires energy active transport 0 Water follows by osmosis passive Loop of Henle acts to modulate osmolarity of medulla o Osmolarity increases from cortex to deep medulla o Selective reabsorption of water later in CD Secretion Secretion moves substances from blood to tubule Eg penicillin is secreted in proximal tubule o Actively transported out of capillaries o Diffuses into the tubule o K and H are secreted in distal tubule 0 Part of control of blood pH 0 Excess K is removed this way v if perimtuuler a capillary proximal Elmiramin Ftrailm WEIHr ats Humml 397 J 39 mammal m39m39iiimif i mm mumquot gt 7 um mums in l a 39 quot Emil H111 n rm V at f 39L39 email Eliuetisse 7 39 g ljcrme rularmpaulg Is E In 5 are Gangs ma Wm 39lfitl ram Eimlnna uric quot grimlai ElehEIrIl b V g r amtlam 39 V U 3 TubMr Ea airlzmlamles alga H Irtlm perilqu E E ij l name into the mmuli w minim 73mm 7 ariariaia I39IEII39IEII artery A quot mmnluiegll min111E de ecting 7 dual Writubular GEPE39ilEirlp39 he U2 rurlt mid will it lm mphnm cmirnim The Loop of Henle Loop of Henle acts to create a gradient of osmolarity 0 Two sides have different functions 0 Descending arm is permeable to water 0 Ascending limb is impermeable to water want to keep the water Also actively transports salt out Leads to gradient of osmolarity cortex to medulla 0 Highest osmolarity in deep medulla 0 Figure 3610 Role of the Collecting Duct Collecting duct runs through depp medulla Fluid in this region has very high osmolarity 0 Means relative concentration of H20 is low If wall of collecting duct is permeable H20 inout 0 CD wall permeable H20 is reabsorbed 0 CD wall not permeable H20 is not reabsorbed Duct permeability under hormonal control Effect of ADH ADH Antidiuretic Hormone affects permeability of the collecting duct When you are dehydrated blood osmolarity higher ADH present collecting duct is permeable H20 0 Water ows out of CD more concentrated urine When you are fully hydrated blood osmolarity normal ADH absent collecting duct is impermeable to H20 0 Water stays in CD more dilute urine Drugs Affect Kidney Functions Diuretics increase volume of urine o What are possible targets 0 Any place water is reabsorbed A number of diuretics affect PCT and LOH o Clinically used as blood pressure drugs 0 Lowering blood volume lowers pressure Caffeine and alcohol affect ADH secretion 0 Both inhibit ADH secretion result The main functions of the kidney are B reabsorption of important materials from the blood to the renal tubule system C maintenance of blood glucose by balancing reabsorption and secretion of glucose DA of the above E only A and B
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