Week 9 Notes!
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Johnston on Friday March 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bios 3110 at a university taught by Williams in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 155 views.
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Date Created: 03/13/15
Week Nine Lecture Sara Johnston Tibio bular Joints We want the shafts joined by interosseous membranes because it promotes strength Fuse the Superior Tibio bular and the tibio bular syndesmosis together 1 If you keep them in separate units they lose lots of exibility Inferior joint is really important when forming the angle joint Nerves The sciatic nerve splits at the top of popliteal fossa and splits into the common bular and tibial nerves deep and super cial Deep is in charge of muscular movements Super cial innervates for the cutaneous Popliteal fossa can be a landmark for the sciatic mark splitting Super cial Posterior Compartment More complexity in the leg 1 Meaning there are additional compartments Super cial Posterior compartment are the muscles that are involved in plantar function Plantar exion when leg is extended Gastrocnemius muscle mediallateral head Plantar exion when knee is exed Soleus muscle The Gastrocnemius and the Soleus are used for balance and are the antagonist to our dorsi exor muscles Deep posterior Compartment Different muscle speci cally for the big toe hallucus because it is really important for producing the most ef cient force for the gait cycle If injured humans have less balance The action of the Popliteus depends on whether the femur is xed or the tibia andor bula is xed 0 If the femur is xed you expend less energy sitting Posterior Compartment 0 TDH Tom Dick and Harry 0 Tibialis posterior Flexor Digitorum Longus Flexor Hallucis Longus Retinacula and Synovial Sheaths Want to maintain at a small movement arm to maintain the maximum ef ciency 0 Limit the amount of material at the ankle joint 0 Flexor retinacula are placed on the medial side of the foot 0 Extensor retinacula are placed on the lateral side of the foot Bursitis 0 Why is this bursa prone to problems 1 Because of the movement and friction of the joint 2 Coming from plantar exion in the extended position 3 Tiptoe type movements are prone to injury Shin Splints Shin splints continue and if the movements and activity continues shin splints can lead to compartment syndrome and the in ammation can cause nerve damage Deep Fibular Nerve Entrapment 0 In ammation around the splitting of the deep and super cial bular nerve The compression at the top of ski boots can cause bular never entrapment Ankle 0 Plantar exion increased range of motion 0 Dorsi exion Less range of motion Trochlea gets narrower toward the back of the foot which leads to increased motion and less stability 0 The ligaments of the ankle are needed for exibility 1 There are a lot of ligaments holding the structure together 2 Most commonly injured joint in the human body is your ankle Lateral Ankle Anterior Talo bular ligament Anterior Tibio bular ligament Calcaneo bular ligament Medial Ankle 0 Spring ligament Calcanonavicular ligament Tibicalcaneal ligament Tibiotalar Ligament Tibionavicular ligament Posterior Ankle 0 Tibio bular syndesmosis Posterior talo bular Ligament Calcaneo bular Ligament Ankle Sprain Can classify the ankle sprain due to the ligaments torn in the ankle Usually Due to inversion More common 1 Much easier to do hyper inversion than hyper eversion Foot 0 Forefoot is for stability for the Whole body 0 Hindfoot is for heal strike and taking the force connection between ground and the body 0 Midfoot is responsible for transmitting energy Plantar Vault Arches give the foot its 3D structure and help the foot adapt to its movements with the ground Joints of the Foot Sits under the Talar bone 0 Straight line connection with the transverse tarsal joint 1 Separates the hindmid foot 0 Helps with amputation Talus helps support the arches of the foot Stabilizers of the Longitudinal Arch Passive does not need a constant input of energy and repairs easily Active need lots of energy Active adds to the metabolism but have a high response rate and can adapt quickly Muscles of the Foot Once foot is off the ground the plantar muscles are only supporting the arches The Adductor Hallucus brings the big toe closer to the other digits and contracts foot for a whole maximum ef ciency Gait Cycle Eccentric contraction l Lengthening of the muscles 2 Dealing with high and large forces trying to store energy 0 Pulling a spring apart shortening and releasing force Concentric contraction l Shortening of the muscles 2 Most common in the body Use the hallucus to pull energy from the hind foot and push the body forward Arteries Less likely to get a cut to the deep arches of the foot 1 If it does happen person will lose a lot of blood The foot is more protected compared to the hand 2 The skin is thicker on the foot Plantar Re ex Injury at the top of the sacral nerves or the bottom of the lumbar in individuals older than four years old Once developed Cortiocospinal tracts the response if a person were to curl their toes not fan them If not developed younger children re exes are working against them 0 Fanning is not an effective position to walk If you fan them you have less balance and might fall onto your face Medial Nerve Entrapment 0 Muscle weakness Tingling Loss of sensation
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