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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adrianna Minichiello on Friday March 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 74156 at San Francisco State University taught by Kimberly Tanner, Johnathan Knight in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Biology 230 in Biology at San Francisco State University.
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Date Created: 03/13/15
Biology Lecture Notes Week of March 9 2015 Monday March 9 2015 Class 19 How do we predict the inheritance of traits Agenda 0 Cat coat genetics 0 GOP and LOF alleles 0 Unpacking fish stripes homework 0 Xlinked traits 0 The inheritance of Huntington s Disease Cat Coat Genetics 0 Cat hair length is linked to a single gene 0 L short hair normal function 0 1 long hair loss of function I The normal protein stops hair growth in the follicles l l L Ll Ll 1 U1 U1 1 Which version of the gene is dominant How do you know 0 The L allele is dominant since the first cat has short hair when it has both versions of the alleles 0 The l is a loss of function mutation 2 What are the possible genotypes of the offspring 0 UL Ll U1 U1 3 What are the possible phenotypes 0 Short hair short hair long hair long hair Clicker Question White is most likely A Dominant 0 The allele responsible is a mutation in the gene for tyrosinase This protein is an enzyme which catalyzes the first step in melanin synthesis 0 The allele cs produces a temperature sensitive protein It only works at cooler temperatures At warmer temperatrues the protein partially unfolds O C dominant normal color pattern 0 cs recessive Siamese color pattern Clicker Question Which of the following is generally true for recessive alleles D The produce nonfunctional proteins or no protein at all Clicker Question Which type of allele is most likely to result from a lossoffunction mutation A Recessive GOF and LOF Alleles 0 Imagine that you have 2 different iPods playing the same tune at the same time one of the iPods has a functional headphone jack and the other has a non functional headphone jack 0 Normal with sound Dominant O LOF without sound Recessive 0 One of the iPods has a functional volume controller while the other one is stock on full volume 0 Normal with sound Recessive O GOF too loud sound Dominant Clicker Question In the fish below horizontal and vertical stripes are controlled by the same gene If the vertical stripes are encoded by a recessive allele h and the horizontal stripes H are encoded by a dominant allele what is the genotype of the parent fish with the vertical stripes C hh Clicker Question In the fish below horizontal and vertical stripes are controlled by the same gene If the vertical stripes are encoded by a recessive allele h and the horizontal stripes H are encoded by a dominant allele what is the genotype of the parent fish with the horizontal stripes E hh or Hh Clicker Question In the fish below horizontal and vertical stripes are controlled by the same gene Is it possible that the vertical stripes are encoded by the dominant allele of that gene A Yes Clicker Question If you had two guinea pigs of opposite sex one black and one brown how could you find out which color was dominant Assume both are homozygous for the coat color gene A Mate them their offspring will show the dominant color Huntington s Disease 0 Huntington s disease is a neurodegenerative disease that destroys muscle coordination and lead to cognitive decline 0 It affects roughly 1 in 20000 people 0 It is caused by a mutation in a single gene Wednesday March 11 2015 Class 20 Information Flow Agenda 0 Exam 2 in 1 week 0 What does genetically identical mean 0 Same genes different structures 0 MiniLecture how do genes get turned on and off 0 Pedigree chart info What does genetically identical mean 0 Twins pine needles pigmy monkeys 0 Mitosis is like a copy machine 0 Twins I Sperm enter egg and the zygote splits into 2 0 Cells separate after first mitotic division 0 Different proteins are present in different cell types 0 Nerve cell proteins skin cell proteins muscle cell proteins I Some proteins are made in all cells but some are specific to certain cells Clicker Question Which of these proteins are you likely to find more of in skin cells than other cells D Keratin Clicker Question Which of these proteins are you likely to find more of in skin nerve and muscle cells C RNA polymerase 0 Cells differ because they contain different proteins but ALL cells need RNA polymerase 0 Eye cells I Rhodopsin 0 Muscle cells I Actin 0 How can a cell control which proteins are made 0 Different genes are turned on and off in different cell types 4 Key Ideas about the regulation of transcriptiongene expression in eukaryotes l Promoters are DNA sequences located right before the transcription start site at the beginning of a gene 2 RNA Polymerase binds to the promoter 3 Enhancers are special eukaryotic DNA sequences that can be quite far away from the promoter 4 Activator proteins bind to enhancers to initiate transcription Clicker Question Enhancers are E Special DNA sequences Clicker Question Activator proteins can be found A In the nucleus bound to DNA How do we direct transgenes to be expressed in certain tissues 0 Promoters and enhancers are noncoding DNA sequences that control when and where a gene is turned on O Activator protein found only in mammary gland 0 Pedigree Chart A chart of a person s ancestors used in human genetics to analyze Mendelian inheritance of certain traits Clicker Question According to the pedigree diagrammed above the original parents of this family tree had C Two daughters and 1 son Friday March 13 2015 Class 21 Huntington s Disease and Pedigrees Agenda 0 The inheritance of Huntington s disease 0 How to interpret pedigree charts 0 Who is Nancy Wexler Fertilization I one cell 12 week fetus I one trillion cells Clicker Question Which type of cell division is occurring here A Mitosis Clicker Question The circled cell A zygote is B Diploid 0 Every cell shown is genetically the same because mitosis acts like a copy machine 0 Twins Cells separate after first mitotic division 0 Only one sperm and one egg is involved in making twins 0 Any meiotic crossing over happened before fertilization and the split of the zygote 0 Question What s the difference between an activator protein and a transcription factor 0 A transcription factor is any protein that helps control transcription of a gene 0 Where have we seen transcription activators before 0 Transcription activators bind directly to DNA to turn on genes 0 The A protein activates genes for pigment biosynthesis 0 p53 protein activates genes that limit cell division 0 External signals turn on specific activator proteins 0 External signals cause activation of specific activator proteins 0 External signals cause activation of specific activator proteins Clicker Question According to the pedigree diagrammed above the disease causing allele is most likely D Sexlinked dominant SRATEGY Consider each type of inheritance separately 0 Can it be recessive 0 Can it be dominant 0 Can it be autosomal 0 Can it be sex linked
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