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Exam 4 Key Terms

by: Crystal Florman

Exam 4 Key Terms HUM 1022-08

Crystal Florman
GPA 3.64

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Terms we need to know for this exam
Humanities II: The Renaissance, Reformation, and Enlightenment
Mr. Micheal Prahl
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystal Florman on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HUM 1022-08 at University of Northern Iowa taught by Mr. Micheal Prahl in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Humanities II: The Renaissance, Reformation, and Enlightenment in Arts and Humanities at University of Northern Iowa.

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Date Created: 04/26/16
Unit 4 Key Terms  Francis Bacon o Associate him with the gradual split of scientific investigation and philosophical thought o Knowledge was best tested by using similar methods that can be repeated and verified  Discourse on Method o Descartes o Focused more on self-thinking, more skepticism to the knowledge provided o Deductive reasoning  Deist o Believe that God is a watchmaker- he started the world and let it go  Thomas Hobbes o Political philosopher focusing mainly on how people can live together peacefully  Principia Mathematica o Isaac Newton o Talked about his theory of mutual gravitation  Denis Diderot o Encyclopedia editor o Collection of articles and diagrams for public knowledge  Social Contract o People giving up some of their freedoms in order to be protected by the government  James Cook o Explorer that mapped a lot of the oceans and Hawaii  Ptolemy o Believed that the earth was the center of the universe o The heavens orbited the earth in a carefully organized hierarchy of spheres o Earth and heavens were made of different material and subject to different laws of motion  Montesquieu o “Persian Letters”- two men talking about their observations of the odd French religious traditions o “The Spirit of Laws”- 3 forms of government: republic, monarchy, despotism  Blaise Pascal o “Pensees” o Experimented with atmospheric pressure  Mercantilism o Economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances  Emile o Children should not learn to reason at a young age but learn by instincts o Women’s education must revolve around men  Treaties of Human Nature o David Hume o Best bridges the gap between science and the enlightenment o No more blanket explanations about humanity, morality, and government- wanted to know exactly how they worked  Rene Descartes o “Discourse on Method” 1637 o Mechanism- nature is conducted in a mathematical way  Maria Winkelmann o German astronomer o Tried to take her husband’s place in the academy, but was rejected  Isaac Newton o Discovered white light is all the colors in one o Invented integral and differential calculus o Theory on gravity  Immanuel Kant o “What is Enlightenment?” 1784 o Enlightenment represented a declaration of intellectual independence from the traditional thinking of the Catholic Church  Laisses faire o Free market  Solons o Organized by aristocratic women who would invite different intellectuals to discuss the thinking of the time  Baruch de Spinoza o Dutch o Applied geometry to ethics and proved the universe was composed of a single substance that is both God and Nature  William Harvey o Observed and explained that blood circulated through arteries, heart, and veins  Nicolas Copernicus o Hired by the Catholic Church to figure out the math for the church calendar o “On Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres”- math would be easier if the sun was the center of the universe  Cesare Beccaria o “On Crime and Punishment”- opposed torture and the death penalty  Adam Smith o “Wealth of Nations” o Opposed to mercantilism and endorsed laissez faire o “invisible hand”- let the economy guide itself  Francois Marie Arouet o Voltaire, French o “Philosophical Letters”- basically explained how England is so much better than France o Wanted to abolish religious oppression  Catherine the Great of Russia o Founded hospitals and orphanages, created elementary school system for provincial nobility, and gained a warm water port for Russia’s Navy  Galileo o Believed in the Copernican System, but had to teach the Ptolemy system o “The Starry Messenger” 1610 “The Letters on Sun Spots” 1613  Maria Sibylla Merian o “Metamorphosis of Insects of Surinam”  Johannes Kelper o Believed everything was created by mathematical laws o Laws: 1. Planets traveled in an elliptical orbit around the sun 2. Speed of planets varied with the distance from the sun  John Locke o “Essay on Human Understanding” 1690 o When born the brain is a blank slate and we learn from our senses o Education is essential in bettering society  David Hume o See Treatise of Human Nature  Mary Wollstonecraft o “A Vindication of the Rights of Women” 1792 o Advocating equality among the sexes both physically and mentally  Public Sphere o Public opinion and public discussion of enlightened thinking and current events  Tycho Brahe o Dutch astronomer o Made his name by observing a new star “nova” 1572 o 1590’s- became court astronomer for Rudolph II  Philosophes o French word for free thinker- name given to enlightened thinkers  Physiocrats o Philosophers specializing in the economy  Frederick the Great of Prussia o Prohibited judicial torture, abolished bribing judges, established a system of schools, encouraged religious toleration of Jews  The Two Sciences o Galileo 1638 o Covered much of his work on physics  Tabula Rasa o Latin for blank slate- referring to Locke’s blank slate at birth  Act of Union o Brought Scotland and England under one rule  Moses Mendelssohn o Jewish Enlightenment  Elena Cornaro o Italian physicist o First woman to receive an academic degree from a university  Laura Bassi o First woman in history to earn a university chair in scientific study  Royal Society of England o Group formed to discuss scientific thought and how it explains everyday life  Novum Organum o Francis Bacon 1620 o Presented a new method for investigating nature  Leviathan o Thomas Hobbes o Civil peace and social unity are best achieved by the establishment of a commonwealth through social contract  Empiricism o The theory that all knowledge is derived from sense-experience  Laws of motion o Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is acted upon it o F=ma Force= mass(acceleration) o For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction  3 Laws of Planetary Motion o Planets move around in an elliptical shape around the sun o Further away from the sun the slower the planet moves o (one revolution around the sun)2 X (average distance from the sun)3  Specific ratio


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