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PY 352 Ch. 8 Notes

by: Gretchen Pierce

PY 352 Ch. 8 Notes 11505

Gretchen Pierce
GPA 3.4
Developmental Psychology
Andre Souza

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Ch. 8 week of notes in psychology 352
Developmental Psychology
Andre Souza
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gretchen Pierce on Friday March 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 11505 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Andre Souza in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 124 views.


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Date Created: 03/13/15
Chapter 8 Early Childhood Emotions 1 Emotional Development a b Between ages 2 and 6 children achieve a better understanding of their own and others feelings and emotional selfregulation improves They more often experience selfconscious emotions and empathy which contribute to their developing sense of morality By age 4 to 5 children correctly judge the causes of many basic emotions After age 4 children appreciate that both desires and beliefs motivate behavior theory of mind The more parents label emotions explain them and express warmth when conversing with preschoolers the better developed children s emotional understanding As early as 35 years old knowledge about emotions is linked to children s friendly considerate behavior willingness to make amends after harming another 2 Emotional SelfRegulation a By age 3 to 4 children can verbalize strategies for adjusting their emotional arousal to a more comfortable level Effortful control is vital in managing emotions in early childhood Warm patient parents who explain strategies for controlling feelings strengthen children s capacity to handle stress Preschoolers who experience negative emotion intensely find it harder to shift attention away from disturbing events The consequences of shame for children s adjusting may vary across cultures Parents who focus on how to improve performance rather than on the worth of the child induce more adaptive levels of shame and pride and greater persistence on difficult tasks 3 Empathy and Sympathy a The capacity for empathy is an important motivation of prosocial or altruistic behavior actions that benefit another person with no expected reward for the self In some children empathy does not lead to sympathy feelings of concern or sorrow for another s plight but instead escalates into personal distress Children who are sociable assertive and good at regulating emotion are more likely to help share and comfort others in distress When parents show sensitive empathetic concern for their preschoolers feelings children are likely to react with concern to the distress of others 4 Punishment a Spanking F7 negate wean d F5 96 Striking child with open hand on buttocks to modify behavior without causing harm 90 families admit to spanking 1314 year olds get spanked still 8 times a year Spanking is most popular in US 6 month old is too young to be spanked they don t understand abuse Boys are spanked more than girls Parents are more likely to spank when they are angry depressed etc 85 said they wouldn t spank if they had a working alternative Spanking leads to antisocial depression and increased aggression etc Dr Elizabeth Geishoff spanking experiment Children that were spanked are 2x as likely to have alcohol abuse and anxiety problems Also more likely to have a lower IQ when they are older It is has an extreme negative correlation A child that is spanked at home is more likely to hit other children at school because his aggression is advocated at home More 36 year olds were hit the more they behaved badly Kids that are hit are more likely to have sexual problems later in life Also more likely to have delinquency participate in crime and be unemployed Parents that spank when it doesn t work instead of changing strategy they increase intensity 5 Gender Typing a C d e Gender typing refers to any association of objects activities roles or traits with one sex or the other in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes Neither social learning theory nor cognitivedevelopmental theory adequately explain children s gender typing gender schema theory a third perspective that combines elements of the other two has gained favor Around age 2 children use gender words such as boy and girl appropriately and associate gender categories with certain activities and behavior Preschoolers actions in both play preferences and personality traits re ect their gender stereotyped beliefs 6 Biological In uences a b Sex differences in behavior appear in many cultures around the world Certain ones make activity level and physical aggression female emotional sensitivity and preference for samesex playmates are widespread among mammalian species c From an evolutionary standpoint males are genetically primed to compete for mates and females to rear children d Research indicates that sex hormones affect human play styles As a result preschoolers tend to choose samesex play partners whose interests and behaviors are compatible with their own e Environmental forces at home at school and in a community build on genetic in uences to promote vigorous gender typing in early ch dhood 7 Gender Roles Video a Age 2 know what gender they are b Always be a boy don t know what boys like though c Age 4 know what activities boys girls like to do 8 Kids on Gay Marriage Video a Older kids accept gay marriage more than little kids do b When little kids do not accept the gay marriage they are not sure why


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