BSC 216 Ch. 23 Notes for entire chapter
BSC 216 Ch. 23 Notes for entire chapter 10617
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BSC 216 Chapter 23 Study Guide 1 Name and locate the 6 organs of the urinary system a Kidneys 2 b Urinary Bladderstorage reservoir c Ureters 2 transport urine d Urethra transports urine 2 List the functions of the kidneys in addition to urine formation a Filters blood plasma separates waste from useful chemicals returns useful substances to blood eliminates waste b Regulate blood volume and pressure by eliminating or conserving water c Regulate the osmolarity of body fluids by controlling the relative amounts of water and solutes eliminated d Secretes enzymes renin which activates hormonal mechanisms that control blood pressure and electrolyte balance e Secretes hormone erythropoietin which stimulates the production of red blood cells f Collaborate with the lungs to regulate P002 and acidbase balance of body fluids g Synthesizing hormone calcitriol which contributes to calcium homeostasis h Gluconeogenesis from amino acids in extreme starvation 3 Name the major nitrogenous wastes and identify their sources a Kidney excretes 4 nitrogenous wastes i Urea Proteins and amino acids liver coverts ammonia to make Urea ii Ammonia protein and amino acid removal of NH2 iii Uric acid product of nucleic acid catabolism iv Creatine product of creatine phosphate catabolism Does not excrete Nitrogen 4 Define excretion and identify the systems that excrete waste a Excretion is the separation of wastes from the body fluids and the elimination of them b 4 body systems that carry out secretion i Respiratory system 1 002 small amounts of other gases and water ii Integumentary system 1 Water inorganic salts lactic acid urea in sweat iii Digestive system 1 Water salts COZ lipids bile pigments cholesterol other metabolic waste food residue iv Urinary system 1 Many metabolic wasters toxins drugs hormones salts H water 5 What is the location and general appearance of the kidney a Kidneys body s main excretory organ i Located between dorsal body wall and parietal peritoneum retroperitoneal ii Protection is brought by the lower rib cage fat capsule attached kidneys to body wall for cushion fibrous capsule that is hard and protects against infection and Fascia is dense connective tissue that anchors kidneys in place iii Right kidney lower in body cavity because crowded by liver b Func on i Filter fluid from the bloodstream to remove metabolic wastes and toxins and return vital ions and water to the blood 6 Understand the external and internal features of the kidney as it relates to the blood and fluid flow a 2 parts of a nephron i Renal corpuscle filters the flood plasma ii Renal tubule converts the filtrate into urine b Cortical nephrons i 85 of all nephrons ii Short nephron loops iii Efferent arterioles branch into peritubular capillaries around the PCT and DOT c Juxtamedullary nephrons i 15 of all nephrons ii Very long nephron loops maintain salinity gradient in the medulla and helps conserve water iii Efferent arterioles branch into vasa recta around the long nephron loop d Rena pyramids e Renal medulla f Renal cortex g Renal columns 7 What is the blood flow through the kidneys a Aorta 9Renal artery 9Segmental artery 9nterlobar artery 9Arcuate artery9 lnterlobular artery 9Afferent artery 9Glomerulus 9Efferent arteriole 9 Peritubular capillaries 9 lnterlobular vein 9 Arcuate vein 9 lnterlobar vein 9 Renal vein 9nferiorVena Cava b Kidneys receive 21 of cardiac output 8 What is the flow of fluid through the renal tubes a Proximal convoluted tubule PCT 9 nephron loop loop of Henle 9 distal convoluted tubule DCT 9 collecting duct b Conversion of glomerular filtrate to urine involves the removal and addition of chemicals by tubular reabsorption and secretion occurs through PCT to DCT 9 What is the process by which the kidney filters the blood plasma including the relevant cellular structure of the glomerulus a From where the glomerular filtrate is formed to when urine leaves body i Glomerular capsule 9 proximal convoluted tubule 9 Nephron loop 9 distal convoluted tubule 9 collecting duct 9 papillary duct 9 minor calyx 9 major calyx 9rena pelvis 9 ureter 9 urinary bladder 9 urethra 10What are explain the forces that promote and oppose filtration How do you calculate the filtration pressure if given the magnitude of these forces a Filtration pressure i Glomerular filtration is governed by the same pressures that determine filtration in the other blood capillaries 1 Golmerular hydrostatic pressure blood pressure 60mmhg 2 Glomerular osmotic pressure 32mmhg opposing filtration 3 Capular hydrostatic pressure 18mmhg exerted by fluids in capsule 4 Capsule colloidal osmotic pressure Ommhg 11How do the nervous system hormones and nephron regulate filtration a Renal autoregulation b Sympathetic control c Hormonal control 12 How does the renal tubules reabsorb useful solutes from the glomerular filtrate and return them to the blood 13 How do the tubules secrete solute from the blood into the tubular fluid a Water and solutes enter the tissue fluid at the base of the epithelium and from there they are taken up by the peritubular capillaries and then are moved to the renal tubules 14 How does the nephron regulate water excretion a The salinity gradient allows the collecting duct to concentrate urine and is also helped by electrolyte reabsorption 15 How do the collecting duct and antidiuretic hormone regulate the volume and concentration of urine 16 How do the kidneys maintain an osmotic gradient in the renal medulla that enables the collecting duct to function 17What are two differences between the cortical nephrons and juxtamedullary nephrons hint peritubular capillaries and vasa recta a Cortical nephrons are 85 of all nephrons short nephron loop and efferent arterioles branch into peritubular capillaries around PCT and DOT b Juxtamedullary nephrons are 15 of all nephrons very long loops and efferent arterioles branch into vasa reca around long nephron loop 18What is a Podocyte a Cell extensions that wrap around the capillaries to form a barrier layer with filtration slits They are negatively charged an additional obstacle for large anions 19What gives the renal medullary pyramids a stringy appearance a They are made up of bundles of tiny collecting tubules and capillaries separated by renal columns 20Where is the juxtaglomerular apparatus located and what are the 3 special cells that it is made of and their functions a Found at the very end of the nephron loop where it has just reentered the renal cortex i Macula Densa senses variations in flow or fluid composition and secretes a paracrine that stimulates JG cells sensor 1 Paracrine similar to hormone but shorter lived local signals ii JG cells when stimulated by the macula they dilate or constrict the arterioles 1 Slows in coming blood flow into the glomerulus ii Mesangial cells connected to macula densa and JG cells by gap junctions and communicate by means of paracrines 1 Constrict or relax capillaries to regulate flow 21 What 3 structures is the filtration membrane composed of a Fenestrated endothelium of glomerular capillaries filtration pores that exclude blood cells highly permeable b Basement membrane gluing endothelium and capsule together excludes big molecules negative charge i Albumin is repelled by negative charge c Filtration slits podocytes of visceral membrane of glomerular capsule negatively charged which adds obstacles for large anions 22 How does the filtration membrane facilitate the transfer of fluidslsolutes from the glomerulus to Bowman s capsule and the kidney tubules 23What substances will easily pass through the filtration membrane and what will not a YES Water electrolytes glucose amino acids fatty acids vitamins urea uric acid creatine b NO blood cells plasma proteins large anions proteinbound minerals and hormones most large molecules 24What is the difference between filtrate and urine a Filtrate is blood plasma minus proteins b Urine contains metabolic wastes and uneeded substances less than 1 filtrate i Until the liquid reaches the renal pelvis it is quotglomerular filtratequot when it reaches the pelvis it is called quoturinequot 25 How does glomerular filtration occur and why is the glomerulus more efficient at filtration than other capillaries in the body a A special case of capillary fluid exchange process in which water and some solutes in the blood plasma pass from the capillaries of the glomerulus into the capsular space of the nephron Almost any molecule smaller than 3 nm can pass freely through filtration membrane i Filtration membrane has large surface area ii High blood pressure within glomerulus results in high net filtration pressure 26What are the 3 forces that generate a glomerular net filtration pressure of 10 mmHg a Blood hydrostatic pressure BHP 1 60 mmHg ii Biggest outward pressure iii Afferent arteriole is larger than efferent iv Primary means of pushing solutes and water out of the blood and across filtration membrane b Hydrostatic pressure in capsular space 1 18 mmHg ii Pressure within capsule pushes water back in to glomerulus because of high filtration rate and continual accumulation of fluid in the capsule c Colloid osmotic pressure COP of blood due to proteins in blood 1 32 mmHg ii Glomerular filtrate is almost protein free and has no significant COP iii Proteins in glomerular blood tend to pull water back into glomerulus Push back to keep fluid in the bloodstream Net Filtration Pressure 60out18in32in10mmHgout 27What are the 3 mechanisms that can alter glomerular filtration rates a Renal autoregulation b Sympathetic control c Hormonal control 28Why is tubular reabsorption necessary a They need to reclaim water and solutes from the tubular fluid and return it back to the blood 29 How does the movement of sodium facilitate the movement of anions and water from lumen to capillaries 30What is a symporter and how does it relate to how sodium ions assist in moving larger molecules a Symporters simultaneously bind Na and another solute such as glucose amino acids or lactate 31 How is Aldosterone Natriuretic peptides ADH and PTH involved in tubular secretion a They all work together to adjust and maintain blood pressure 32What is the countercurrent exchange system and how does this work to keep salts and urea in the medulla a Large volume of water reabsorbed by collecting duct must return to bloodstream completed by vasa recta capillaries branching off efferent arteriole in medulla i Provides blood supply to medulla and does not remove NaCl and urea from medullary ECF ii Descending capillaries water flows out of capillaries salt flows in iii Ascending capillaries water into blood salt out iv Medullary portion of collecting duct is more permeable to water 1 As urine passes through the Medulla water leaves by osmosis 33 Describe the neural control of urination voluntary and involuntary a Involuntary i Stretch receptors detect filling of bladder transmit afferent signals to spinal cord ii Signal returns to bladder from spinal cord segments 82 and 83 via parasympathetic fibers in pelvic nerve iii Efferent signals excite detrusor muscle iv Efferent signals relax internal urethral sphincter and urine is involuntarily voided it not inhibited by brain b Voluntary i Micturition center in pons receives signals from stretch receptors ii If it is timey to urinate pons return signals to spinal interneurons that excite detrusor and relax internal urethral sphincter Urine is voided 9 iii If it is untimely signals from pons excite signal interneurons that keep external urethral sphincter contracted Urine is retained in bladder iv If it is timely to urinate signals from pons cease and external urethral sphincter relaxes urine is voided Chapter 24 What is a Buffer and what are the equations for the bicarbonate buffer system a Buffer any mechanism that resist changes in pH b C02 H20 9 H2CO3 9 HCO3 H i Lowers pH by releasing H c HCO3 H 9 H2CO3 9C02 H20 i Raises pH by binding H What is the relationship between pulmonary ventilation pH of the extracellular uids and the bicarbonate buffer system a Increased C02 and decreased extracellular pH stimulate pulmonary ventilation while an increased extracellular uid pH inhibits pulmonary ventilation How do the kidneys secrete Hydrogen ions and how are these ions buffered in the tubular uid a Renal tubules in the kidneys secrete H ions into the tubular uid b These ions can either bind to other chemicals like bicarbonate ammonia and phosphate and the bound and free H are excreted in the urine actually expelling H from the body i Other buffers only reduce H concentration by binding H to other chemicals they can not excrete H like the kidneys can What is the normal pH range for human blood and tissue uid a 735745 What determines the pH of a solution a The Hydrogen ions H How does a chemical buffer work a They bind H and removes it from solution as its concentration begins to rise to make it more basic or they release H into solution as its concentration falls to make it more acidic How does the bicarbonate buffer system act to lower pH Increased pH a Lowers pH by releasing H b Raises pH by binding H How do the kidneys lower pH a Excreting HCO3 bicarbonate ion How do the kidneys and lungs work together to raise pH a The kidneys excrete H while the lungs excrete C02 10 If we remove C02 from a solution does it become from acidic or basic a Raises pH so it becomes more alkaline 11 Why can the kidneys neutralize more acids and bases than other buffer systems a The kidneys can actually eliminate H from the body through urine unlike the other buffer systems that can only bind H to other chemicals Chapter 25 1 What is the enteric nervous system a A nervous network in the esophagus stomach and intestines that regulate digestive tract motility secretion and blood ow i Over 100 million neurons more than spinal cord ii Functions independent from CNS iii Contains sensory neurons that monitor tension in gut wall and conditions in lumen 2 What is the process of mastication and swallowing a Mastication chewing breaks food into smaller pieces to be swallowed and exposes more surface to the action of digestive enzymes first step in mechanical digestion b Swallowing deglutition a complex action involving over 22 muscles in the mouth pharynx and esophagus 3 What is the composition and functions of saliva Moisten mouth Begin starch and fat digestion Cleanse teeth Inhibit bacterial growth Dissolve molecules so they can stimulate taste buds Moisten food and bind it together into bolus to aid in swallowing 4 What is the neutral control of salivation and swallowing a Short and long reflexes 5 Identify the secretions of the stomach and state their functions a Hormones i Chemical messengers secreted into bloodstream and stimulate distant parts of the digestive tract 1 Gastrin and secretin b Paracrine secretions i Chemical messengers that diffuse through the tissue uids to stimulate nearby target cells 6 What are the contractile responses of the stomach to food a Stomach exhibits peristalsis b Contractions start out soft and slow but as contractions approach pylorus become more powerful c Back and fourth pumping action also breaks up solids more d Intensity can be monitored rhythm is always constant 7 What are the 3 phases of gastric function and how gastric activity is activated and inhibited a Phase 1 cephalic hope i Occurs before food enters the stomach ii Triggered by smell taste sight or thought of food b Phase 2 gastric i Activated by swallowed food and semidigested protein c Phase 3 intestinal i Moderates gastric activity through hormones and nervous re exes 8 What are digestive secretions and functions of the liver gallbladder and pancreas a Liver i Secretes produces bile which contributes to digestion b Gallbladder i Serves to store and concentrate bile by a factor of 20 by absorbing water and electrolytes c Pancreas i Endocrine portion of the pancreas secretes insulin and glucagon ii Exocrine portion of the pancreas secretes pancreatic juices 9 How do hormones regulate secretion by the liver and pancreas a Hormones i Chemical messengers secreted into bloodstream and stimulate distant parts of the digestive tract ii Gastrin and secretin 10 How does the mucosa of the small intestine differ from the stomach Explain the functional significance of the differences a Stomach mucosa i Thick and protects itself from the highly acidic juices 1 The gastric mucosa is specialized for production of digestive acid and enzymes The mucosal surface of simplecolumnar epithelium consists of mucussecreting cells for protection against selfdigestion The bulk of this thick mucosa is occupied by acidsecreting cells and enzyme secreting cells which comprise closelypacked glands within the gastric mucosa b Small intestine i Thin and delicate for absorption 1 The intestinal mucosa is specialized for absorption of nutrients and is thereby delicate and vulnerable The simple columnar epithelium consists of absorptive cells enterocytes with scattered goblet cells which secrete mucus for lubrication 1 1 Define contact digestion where does it occur a Contact digestion chyme must contact the brush boarder for digestion to occur b This occurs in the small intestine 12 What are the types of movement that occur in the small intestine a Segmentation i Movement in which stationary ringlike contractions appear in several places along the intestine 1 Most common type of intestinal contraction ii Purpose is to mix and churn NOT to move material along as in peristalsis b Peristalsis i Gradual wavelike movement of contents towards colon 11 13 Describe the locations of carbohydrate protein fats and nucleic acid digestion Name the enzymes involved in the digestion process a FLOW CHART 14 Describe how each of the above is absorbed by the small intestine ow chart a FLOW CHART 15 What is the physiological significance of intestinal bacteria a Digest cellulose and other undigested carbohydrates i Body absorbs resulting sugars b Helps in synthesis of vitamins B and K 16 What types of contractions occur in the colon a Haustral 17 Explain the neurological control of defecation a Filling rectum b Re ex contraction of rectum and relaxation of internal anal sphincter c Voluntary relaxation of external sphincter i Abdominal contractions valsalva maneuver increase pressure 18 What is the primary function of the alimentary canal GI tract and which organs are associated with it a 30 ft long muscular tube extending from mouth to anus b Mouth pharynx esophagus stomach small intestine large intestine c GI tract is the stomach and intestines 19 What types of accessory organs participate in the digestive process a Teeth tongue salivary glands liver gallbladder and pancreas 20 What are the 5 stages of the digestive process a Ingestion selective intake of food b Digestion mechanical and chemical breakdown of food c Absorption Uptake of nutrients into digestive tract and then into the blood and lymph d Compaction absorbing water and consolidating indigestible residue into feces e Defecation eliminate feces 2 1 Define Peristalsis How does it work 22 23 a Peristalsis is gradual wavelike movement of contents toward colon i Peristaltic waves begins in duodenum travels 1070 cm and dies out followed by another wave further down ii Entirely involuntary