Week 9 Biology 106- Organismal Biology
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Silverman on Friday March 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 106- Organismal Biology at Washington State University taught by Dr. Cousins & Dr. Lee in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Biology 106 in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 03/13/15
3915 Animal Structure and Function Why study biology Some thoughts Steve Jobs Mac Plus 1984 2599 8 MHz processor 1 MB RAM 35inch double sided 800 KB floppy drive 2015 Apple iPad 14 GHz processor 16 GB Flash Memory 1 GB RAM Memory 370 Moore s Law Moore s LawGeorge Moore cofounder Intel Processor power will double every 2 years Linked to processor prices memory sensors pixels in digital cameras The same thing has been happening in science Manual DNA Sequencing Automated DNA Sequencing MinilON sequencer 900 USB device 150 million bp in 6 h GrileN human genome in 15 minutes iClicker Which of the following cost less that 2600 in 1984 in 1984 dollars 1984 averages 4 years State University 1 year tuition and fees 1984 Honda Civic 1984 the first Motorola cell phone all of the above none of the above 01000 Moore s Law in Science on test The Challenger Expedition 1872 1876 the birth of oceanography One of the questions is are you in the right place at the right time That s one of the ways you make the right discovery Neptune Canada Internet based marine observatory White shark biology httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvD4S4BXeHvXO httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvn9L4Mwn6wu0 Discovery resulting from opportunity and technology Farallon islands 27 miles west of SF golden gate bridge Just learning about white sharks in the 80s people were bird watching and would sometimes notice bloody water sharks having lunch The Devil s Teeth by Susan Cam Determined that you could get closer and closer to sharks and they didn t care And you wouldn t die Super close observations Same female and male sharks come to the same places every year There is still stuff left to discover How long do they live Unknown But probably at least thirty years considering that white sharks don t mature until they re over ten years old Where do they mate or when or how often or even how There are clues to the sex lives of great white sharks but no factsThe females return only every other year often with fresh deep bites around their heads Are these wounds related to mating Do the females spend their off years giving birth in warmer waters For that matter how many great whites are there in the oceans All of this is a complete mystery Pop up archival tags on test Gopro cameras You can stick them on animals and watch them go Also pop up archival tags Shows you where the shark is going Sharks think Hawaii is cool Sharks have rough sex Objectives of the course Learn how animals plants and bacteria work Linkages between biochemistrycell biology and whole organism functionecology Evolution physical laws Learning connections rather than minutia When we talk about how animals work it s notjust animals ts plants bacteria it s life People only remember the huge names You re not going to remember the names of the people who know how many hairs are on a barnacle So we will focus more on how a barnacle works Biochemistry cell biology how these organisms function around other organisms their ecology where did they come from evolution does a lot to explain an animal s influences Engineering principles also influence animals Evolution biochemistrycell biology Organisms diversified into major lineages Basic biochemical and cellular architecture with modifications To understand a white shark you need to know his influences We will see where those white sharks come from Ecology How to make a living Primary producer Microbe heterotroph Filter feeder Predator Apex Predator Ecology of a white shark will be different than an anchovy A white shark needs to kill other animals It isn t just a filter feeder It is an apex character How do organim work Comparative approach Who is a shark related to You could have a human that is related to a white shark Bacterium heterotroph simple extracellular digestion propulsion with a flagellum a white shark is like other organisms It needs to eat but it eats differently A lot of labs will be about eating Bacteria has a very simple diet digesting dissolved nutrients Same principles that govern bacteria also govern a white shark but differently Sea anemone carnivore but also benefits from algae sedentary smart because it has algae inside of it that gives it food White shark Apex predator Jawed chordate not every animal has jaws Structural adaptations fast swimming Physiological and biochemical adaptations fast swimming flotation Reproductive adaptations important for success Biological engineering they have ways of engineering themselves on a microscale for fast swimming Lam prey jawless fish attaches itself to other organisms and sucks the blood out White Shark Jaw create a hinge teeth that are sharp if you cut a head off a shark it s jaws will still chomp Megalodon HeHcop on weird jaws Idaho State found a fossil with the intactjaw in a helicoprion Ancestor of a shark The lowerjaw looks like a spiral buzzsaw turns out it used the jaw the serrations scrape and cut Master cutter We think it cuts jellyfish They re super slippery White shark more symmetric tail fast swimmer iClicker Why does the goblin shark have such an unusual bite A increase bite strength B ambush prey we know it can t swim fast and the snout is probably a sensory organ It can t change because of its nose It probably lies extremely still and then just zips out it s mouth C intimidate enemies D increase bite speed E specializes in eating seaweeds Thresher shark asymmetric tail uses tail to stun prey Swimming performance High aspect ratio tail least amount of drag is a symmetric tail Super fast Asymmetric isn t as fast Vertebrate segmented muscle and cartilaginous skeleton Streamlining Must swim constantly pectoral fins generate lift Biochemical nitrogenous wastes urea and other amines create buoyancy Tuna sword fish shark probably fast All have that tail Designed to create lift swimming constantly Generating power Skeletal muscle with sarcomeres Closed circulatory system hemoglobin Heated swimming muscle Warm blooded 30 degrees Higher body temperature higher power Bioengineering Placoid scales generate fonNard thrust Sharks are engineers made their skin covered with scales Not flat like normal fish but spiny sandpaper like spikes Engineers have 3D printed shark skin and put it on robots The skin actually generates fonNard thrust The 3D printed skin is resistant to bacteria 31115 Figure 324 A traditional view of animal diversity based on bodyplan grades Do you really know what animals are Understand their relationships to other animals Phylogenetic trees Know characteristics of a phyla Tree has all of the different phyla and the branches that are based on what the animals look like Starfish next to us Based on body structure Sequencing genomes which DNA is most similar Figure 328 Animal phylogeny based on sequencing of SSUrRNA Diagram you need to know from the test The diversification of animals through evolution helps us to understand what an animal is All models are false but some are useful George Box Professor of Statistics University of Wisconsin Evolution as a model it provides us with the greatest insight into what an organism is There is a reason why we don t expectjellyfish to fly or walk around anytime soon Figure 3213x Burgess Shale fossi The tree of life that exists today is not the one that existed 2 million years ago Most of the fossils observed had hard body parts Calms and vertebrates Most animals are not preserved well lt preserved soft body oganisms Burgess shale httpwwwyoutubecomwatchv08UchgzcEA Anomalocaris 1 meter long predator httpwwwyoutubecomwatchviEh6ufo p6tE Opabinia five stalked eyes a backwardfacing mouth under the head and a long flexible hoselike proboscis which extended from under the front of the head and ended in a quotclawquot fringed with spines Looks like maybe a fried shrimp except it has 5 eyes and a vacuum cleaner like thing with teeth at the end A lot of times when they found this fossil they thought it was a shrimp eating a worm and got killed in the middle of eating Preserved because there was probably a tsunami or earthquake t buried an entire group You find this fossil with a weird mouth and assume that he was eating Then you find another with the same thing Realize that the mouth is actually part of the weird animal Find that there are all of these things that don t look anything like they do now Figure 3213 A sample of some of the animals that evolved during the Cambrian The world is already pretty diverse but if there was another whole set of animals that just disappeared What we look at what used to be the coast of Seattle a long time ago you see a ton of crazy fossils of animals that don t exist anymore They started lumping these fossils into existing groups but it got to the point where they couldn t place the fossils in existing categories Animals that were around at that time were very different so the phylum that he shows us 328 was actually probably more of a huge bush with multiple more branches We have to spend at least 3 lectures talking about it if they all still existed Can find all of these existing groups in the Burgess Shale there s also just a ton that don t exist anymore Figure 331 Review of animal phylogeny iClicker There are been about 5 mass extinction events the Permian 250mA was the most severe resulting in the extinction of of all species 100 96 54 22 0 01000 Choanoflagellate colony Choanoflagellate first animal look like protist your body has different types of proteins Your cells aren t going to link up or crawl around on other cells These ones link up This had to have some sort of advantage A group of cells vs free swimming cell which do groups have a better advantage Reason why colonies do better is because they are better at capturing particles They are filter feeders That they are superior to the individuals Phylum Porifera First split in the phylogeny is the eumetazoa vs parazoa from choanoflagellate The only things that exist now in the parazoa are the sponges There may have been more but right now all of the sponges are in one group only in the marine environment This one lonely branch are the sponges They look very similar to the ancestral choanoflagellate Sponges most simple phylum colony of flagellated cells choanocytes Porocytes on surface individual cells can potentially regenerate into a new individual No true tissues no symmetry Spicules spongin Know the characteristics for sure Figure 333 Anatomy of a sponge Colony of things that look like choanoflagellate Has a flagellum with a structure that can filter out particles If it is by itself it will trap the food If you put a lot of choanoflagellates together coanaflaggeside You have a lot of flagellum that form the spores some things work as protection and others that form a protein called spongin Specialized cells on the outside and specialized cells on the inside filtering water The water that s coming out is sterile in terms of bacteria any bit of food will get removed You see them in places where food is really scarce Sponges are really primitive As far as an organism goes this is as stripped down and minimal as possible Their cells are not divided into tissues Totally do whatever you want in terms of body shape One of the only phyla has no symmetry A lot of sponges in tide pools will just crust onto rocks Very disorganized No sensory organs They have no idea what s going on Can t tell if it s light or dark no muscles for contractions and stuff Pretty much no to everything Radial Other creatures the eumetazoa they do have symmetry Two types of symmetry bilateral and radial symmetry Figure 325 Body symmetry a Radial symmetry works pretty well More simple organisms Easier Cells are next to each other b Bilateral symmetry not trivial Phylum Cnidaria Radial symmetric simple organism Hydras jellyfish sea anemones corals True tissues nervous system muscles sensory organs digestive system generally two tissue layers gastrodermis epidermis gastrovascular cavity stinging cells Radiata Figure 334 Polyp and medusa forms of cnidarians A polyp sea anemone A medusa a jellyfish Always form the radial symmetric way If you take one sponge cell they ll all grow into a new cell Some cells are internal layer gastrodermis Some are outer layer epidermis Sponges are completely different they don t have both layers Have nervous system and sensory organisms Figure 335 A cnidocyte of a hydra A cnidarian also has a harpoon called nematocyst The fastest speed in the animal kingdom is involved in the shooting of a nematocyst out of the cnidocyte Some have venom Like jeHy sh One inch 2 cell layered creature can kill a 6 foot human Echarged cnidocyte Harpoons that are coiled inside stinging cells They re venomous Cnidarians Medusa forms Medusa form jellyfish Polyp form coral and anemone The lrukandji Carukua barnesi 1 inch diameter Australia Can kill human in a few days Microscopic video footage ofjellyfish nematocysts firing The video was created by the TASRU Tropical Australian Stinger Research Unit of James Cook University The video shows nematocysts along a section of tentacle from Carukia barnesi lrukandji jellyfish discharging after artificial stimulation The image has been filmed through a microscope and is magnified about 400 times Jellyfish lake Palau The golden jellyfish Mastigias cf papua Giant iellyfish Cnidarians Polyp forms Sea anemone Anthopleura tidepools Pacific Coast Corals see also google street view Cnidaria Deep water anemone search for anemone swimming Stomphia didemon Orange swimming anemone 80160m depth Usually attached to horse mussels around sandy substrates Phylum Ctenophora Comb jellies comblike ciliary plates for propulsion no stinging cells sticky tentacles instead True tissues nervous system muscles sensory organs digestive system 23 tissue layers gastrovascular cavity Radiata Important to the evolution of animals Diverse body shapes despite being a relatively small phylum Bilateral What we are mirror image Lot of phyla Figure 326 Body plans of the bilateria acoelomate pseudocoelomate coelomate WHAT ARE THE THREE TISSUE TYPES OF A BILATERAL ORGANISM endoderm inner ectoderm outer mesoderm middle Phylum Platyhelminthes Flatworms dorsoventrally flattened no segmentation gastrovascular cavity bilateral no coelom protostome Figure 3310 Anatomy of a planarian Figure 3312 Anatomy of a tapeworm Phylum Nematoda Roundworms unsegmented no circulatory system bilateral pseudocoelomate protostome iClicker What is a potential problem faced by a tapeworm living inside a human s intestine A constant threat of predators B food availability is very low C low chance of encountering another worm of same species for sexual reproduction D poor cell phone reception Figure 3325a Freeliving nematode Lophophorates several phyla Bryozoans lampshells brachiopods bilateral coelomate protostome Figure 3314 L0ph0phorates Bryozoan left brachionod right Phylum Mollusca Clams snails squids foot visceral mass mantle bilateral coelomate protostome Table 333 Major Classes of Phylum Mollusca Phylum Mollusca Class Gastropoda Figure 3316 Basic body plan of mollusks Mollusca Euspira lewisii Moon snail one of the largest to be found intertidally in the Northwest It does not usually stay inside the shell long because it cannot breathe lt crawls across sandflats and mudflats with its huge foot partly extended in front of the shell like a snowplow pushing through the sediments in search of clams Figure 3318 The results of torsion in a gastropod Phylum Mollusca Class Bivalvia Figure 3321 Anatomy of a clam Freshwater mussel Lampsilis reeveiana Snuffbox mussel Epioblasma triquetra and logperch host Phylum Mollusca Class CephaIODoda Humboldt squid Architeuthis dux Vampyroteuthis infernalis Vampire squid from hell httpwwwyoutubecomwatc hvS3CJKKSUpg No ink production produces bioluminescent mucus cloud Black surface Lives in the oxygen minimum zone Hawaiian bobtail squid Houses bioluminescent Vibrio bacteria in a crypt Uses the light for counterillumination when they hunt at night There is a reflector and lens as part of the light organ Phylum Annelida Segmented worms bilateral coelomate protostome Figure 3323 Anatomy of an earthworm Giant palouse earthworm Driloleirus americanus The white lily scented denizen of the region s fertile deep soils reportedly can grow to 3 feet long Thought to be extinct Specimen found by Ul researcher in 2006 Table 334 Classes of Phylum Annelida Phylum Arthronoda Crustaceans insects spiders segmented body jointed appendages exoskeleton bilateral coelomate protostome Figure 3326 External anatomy of an arthrobod Interesting arthropods Pistol shrimp lsopods Look like pillbugs normally small Mantis shrimp Stomatopods Second leg is a spear or club special hard chitin Figure 3330b Spider anatomy Figure 3333 Anatomy of a grasshonper an insect Bilateral Deuterostomes Figure 327 A comparison of early develobment in protostomes and deuterostomes Phylum Echinodermata Starfish sea urchins Endoskeleton water vascular system tube feet pedicellaria spines regeneration capability bilateral coelomate deuterostome Figure 3338 Anatomy of a sea star Echinodermata starfish Pycnopodia helianthoides Sunflower star Voracious predator httpwwwyoutu becomwatchv TysOw3CgApQ httpwwwyoutu becomwatchv ALaMoSvaE Echinodermata urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus Red sea urchin eats kelps jaw like structure these urchins live over 100 years and found some near Vancouver Island that may be 200 years old A prime food for sea otters httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvMXQF7thDSYampfeaturerelated httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvb44 bxr07w Echinoderms Sea cucumber radial symmetry forms cylinder shape Phylum Chordata Lancelets tunicates vertebrates notochord nerve cord bilateral coelomate deuterostome Figure 342 Chordate characteristics Figure 344a Subphylum Cephalochordata lancelet anatomy Figure 343 Subphylum Urochordata a tunicate Table 337 Animal phyla
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