Chapter 6 Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bella on Saturday March 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at University at Buffalo taught by Larry Hawk in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views.
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Date Created: 03/14/15
Chapter 6 Learning Learning gt A relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience Habituation gt The learning that occurs when repeated exposure to a stimulus decreases an organism s responsiveness to the stimulus Classical conditioning gt A type of learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes paired associated with a stimulus that causes a re exive behavior and in time is sufficient to produce that behavior Acquisition gt In classical conditioning the initial learning of the conditioned response CR Conditioned Response CR gt A response that depends or is conditional on pairings of the conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus once learned the conditioned response occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented alone Conditioned Stimulus CS gt An originally neutral stimulus that acquires significance through pairings with an unconditioned stimulus US Unconditioned Response UR O 09 O 09 gt The re exive response elicited by a particular stimulus Unconditioned Stimulus US gt A stimulus that elicits an automatic response UR without requiring prior learning Biological Preparedness gt A builtin readiness for certain conditioned stimuli to elicit particular conditioned responses so less conditioning training is necessary to produce learning Conditioned Emotional Response CER gt An emotional response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus Phobia gt An irrational fear of a specific object or situation Extinction in classical conditioning gt In classical conditioning the process by which a CR comes to be eliminated through repeated presentations of the CS without the presence of the US Spontaneous Recovery in classical conditioning gt The event that occurs when the CS again elicits the CR after extinction has occurred Spontaneous Recovery in operant conditioning gt The process by which an old response reappears if there is a period of time after extinction Stimulus generalization gt A tendency for the CR to be elicited by neutral stimuli that are like but not identical to the CS in other words the response generalizes to similar stimuli Stimulus Discrimination gt The ability to distinguish among stimuli similar to the CS and to respond only to the actual CS Operant conditioning gt The process by which a behavior becomes associated with its consequences Law of Effect gt Actions that subsequently lead to a satisfying state of affairsquot are more likely to be repeated Response Contingency gt The relationship that occurs when a consequence is dependent on the organism s emitting the desired behavior Reinforcement gt The process by which consequences lead to an increase in the likelihood that the response will occur again Positive Reinforcement gt Occurs when a desired reinforce is presented after a behavior thereby increasing the likelihood of a recurrence of that behavior Negative Reinforcement gt Occurs when an unpleasant event or circumstance that follows a behavior is removed thereby increasing the likelihood of a recurrence of the behavior O 09 O 0 Positive Punishment gt Occurs when a behavior leads to an undesired consequence thereby decreasing the likelihood of a recurrence of that behavior Negative Punishment gt Occurs when a behavior leads to the removal of a pleasant event or circumstance thereby decreasing the likelihood of a recurrence of the behavior Generalization gt The ability to emit a learned behavior in response to a similar stimulus Discrimination gt The ability to engage in a learned behavior in response to a particular stimulus but not in response to a similar one Discriminative Stimulus gt The cue that tells the organism whether a specific response will lead to the expected reinforcement Extinction in operant conditioning gt The fading out of a response following an initial burst of that behavior after the withdrawal or reinforcement Shaping gt The gradual process of reinforcing an organism for behavior that gets closer to the desired behavior Chaining gt Interval schedule gt Partial reinforcement schedule based on time Ratio Schedule gt Partial reinforcement schedule based on a specified number of emitted responses Fixed interval schedule gt Reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is given for a response emitted after a fixed interval of time Fixed ratio schedule gt Reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is given after a fixed number of time Variable Interval Schedule gt Reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is given for a response emitted after a variable interval of time Variable Ratio Schedule gt Reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is given after a variable number of responses Cognitive Learning gt The acquisition of information that often is not immediately acted on but is stored for later use ObservationalVicarious Learning gt Learning that occurs through watching others not through reinforcement Associative Learning gt A learning process by which a certain stimulus comes to be associated with another stimulus or behavior as through classical or operant conditioning 339 Sensitization gt The process of becoming susceptible to a given stimulus that previously had no effect or significance 339 Reinforcement vs Punishment gt Reinforcement is an event that increases future probability of the most recent response punishment is an event that decreases future probability of the most recent response Be familiar with Little Albert and Pavlovian Ivan Pavlov experiments Operant Conditioning Types Wpe of Event Positive Avemive Anselmth rug
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