Chapter 3: North America
Chapter 3: North America GEOG:1090
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie Kreischer on Saturday March 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG:1090 at University of Iowa taught by C. E. Pavlik in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Globalization and Geographic Diversity in Geography at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 03/14/15
Chapter 3 North America Post industrial economy human geographies are shaped by modern technology innovative information services and a popular culture that dominates both North America and the world beyond North America US Canada Environmental Geography A Threatened Land of Plenty Costs of Human Modification Energy consumption high Environmental and economic costs from pollution Hydraulic fracturing drilling techniques may lead to polluted ground water Transforming soils and vegetation 0 Arrival of Europeans new species including wheat cattle and horses Managing water 0 Waters of Ogallala Aquifer are being depleted 0 Water pollution Altering atmosphere 0 Results in changing local and regional climates and composition of the atmosphere 0 Urban heat island effect development associated with cities often produces nighttime temperatures warmer than those of nearby rural areas 0 Acid rain industrially produced sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere that damage forests poison lakes and kill fish 0 Air pollution Growing Environmental Awareness Sustainable agriculture organic farming principles limited use of chemicals and an integrated plan of crop and livestock management combine to offer both producers and consumers environmentally friendly alternatives Renewable energy sources an energy source that is known for its enduring availability and its potentially lower environmental costs 0 ex hydroelectric solar wind geothermal Diverse Physical Setting Lowlands bordered with mountainous ranges Costal ranges on the east and west Patterns of Climate and Vegetation Very diverse due to region s size latitudinal range and varied terrain Boreal forest coniferous evergreen forest Tundra arctic region with a mixture of low shrubs grasses and flowering herbs hat grow briefly in the short growing seasons of the high latitudes Prairie region with fertile soils dominated with tall grasslands in the East and short grasses and stub vegetation in the West Climate Change High altitude and alpine environments are participially vulnerable to global warming Sea levels have increased coastal erosion coasts very vulnerable ln mountains pine beetle populations are rapidly infesting pine forests North American glaciers are disappearing Population and Settlement Reshaping a Continental Landscape Modern and Spatial Demographic Patterns Megalopolis largest settlement cluster in the US New England area Baby boom 19461965 0 Birth rates rose Predicting the region s population will be 464 million by 2050 Occupying the Land North America populated for at least 12000 years before the Europeans came Native American population 1500 CE was about 44 million 90 of population died off from European disease First stage of European settled created a series of colonies 16001750 Second stage was the settlement of better agricultural lands in the eastern half of the continent 17501850 0 Westward across the Appalachians Third stage settlement accelerated and most of the region s remaining agricultural lands were settled by a mix of nativeborn and immigrant farmers o Attracted by opportunities of Call and other western states 0 Gold and silver discoveries 0 Development of Midwest North Americans on the Move Westward moving population Move fueled newjob creation in high technology energy and service industries Blacks reminded economically tied to the rural South after Civil War 0 Many started to migrate because the declining demands for labor in agricultural and growing demands for industrial opportunity 0 Sun Beltjobs and federal civil rights attracted northern blacks to the south Rural to urban migration 0 New employment opportunities in the city Nonmetr0politan growth people leave large cities and move to smaller towns and rural areas Settlement Geographies The Decentralized Metropolis Urban decentralization metropolitan areas sprawl in all directions and suburbs take on many characteristics of traditional downtowns Evolution of the city in the US 0 1920s production of cars expanded middle class to suburbs 0 Edge cities activity moved from inner city to suburbs where strips of retail and office complexes still exist these cities have fewer functional connections with the central city than they have with suburban center Consequence of sprawl 0 Inner cities lost population increased their levels of crime poverty and unemployment increased and had a shrinking tax base 0 Gentrification process involving the displacement of lowerincome residents of central city neighborhoods by higherincome residents 0 New urbanism urban design movement stressing higherdensity mixed use pedestrianscaled neighborhoods where residents can walk to work school and entertainment Settlement Geographies Rural North America Origins early European settlement Changed by commercial farming and technology Cultural Coherence and Diversity Shifting Patterns of Pluralism Roots of Cultural Identity Anglo roots as a result of Great Britain ruling 0 Separation of church and state 0 Representative government 0 Liberal individualism 0 Social mobility Coexists with pluralism the persistence and assertion of distinctive cultural identities Ethnicity people with common background and history identify with one another often as a minority group within a larger society 0 ex Canada with French colonization in Quebec Peopling North America Region of immigrants Cultural assimilation process in which immigrants were absorbed by the larger host society Migration to the US 0 Phase 1 prior to 1820 English and African influences dominated slaves contributed to cultural influence in the South 0 Phase 2 18201870 Northwest Europe was main source of immigrants emphasis shifted away from English immigrants and Irish and German dominated 0 Phase 3 18701920 Southern and eastern Europeans push factor of political strife and poor economies in Europe pull factor of industrialization 0 Phase 4 19201970 Immigrants from neighbors Latin American and Canada 0 Phase 5 1970now Latin American specially hispanic and Asia Undocumented immigrants grew 1112 million Canadian pattern 0 French arrival and European immigration 0 Next came Britain Ireland and US 0 Now many Asians 60 of immigrants Culture and Place in North America Cultural homeland culturally distinctive settlement in a welldefined geographic area ethnicity survived over time stamping with a landscape of enduring personality 0 ex French in Quebec Mosaic of ethnic neighborhoods Globalization of American Culture North Americans living globally 0 Key issue is language barriers ie creation of Spanglish 0 Internet access 0 Ethnic restaurants 0 Fashion Global diffusion of US culture 0 Popularity of English language 0 Skyscrapers o Corporations 0 Technologies Geopolitical Framework Patterns of Dominance and Division Creating Political Space 0 Breaking from Great Britain 0 Clean and swift from US 0 Longer for Canada Continental Neighbors 0 Boundary Waters Treaty St Lawrence Seaway opened for better global trade connections Cleaned up the Great Lakes 0 North American Free Trade Agreement Also extended to Mexico 0 Political conflicts with concern on environmental issues Legacy of Federalism 0 Federal states both nations allocate considerable political power to units of government beneath the national level Other states like France are unitary states power is centralized at the national level 0 Quebec s challenge Political status remains a major issue in Canada Anglo vs French 0 Native peoples and national politics North American and Inuit populations 0 Politics of US immigration issues 1 Disagreement on how many immigrants should be allowed into the country 2 Tightening daily flows of undocumented immigrants 3 Relations with Mexico have soured due to drugrelated violence 4 No political consensus on a policy to deal with editing undocumented workers Economic and Social Development Geographies of Abundance and Affluence An Abundant Resource Base Opportunities for agriculture 0 Commercialized mechanized and specialized Impacted by 0 Diverse environment 0 Varied continental and global markets for food 0 Historial patterns of settlement and agricultural evolution Energy and industrial raw materials 0 Regional production of fossil fuels on a rise 0 However US still imports more than 10 million barrels of oil a day 0 Most abundant fossil fuel in the US coal 0 Other energy sources Wind Solar Nuclear Biofuel Creating a Continental Economy Connectivity and economic growth 0 Connectivity how well a regions different locations become linked with one another though improved transportation and communication networks 0 Railroads o Telegraph 0 Automobiles and mechanized farm equipment 0 Highways air links 0 Etc Sectorial Transformation the evolution of a nation s labor fore from one dependent on the primary sector natural resource extraction to one with more employment in the secondary manufacturing or industrial tertiary services and quaternary information processing sectors 0 Tertiary and quaternary employ more than 70 of labor force Regional economic patterns 0 Location factors varied influence that explain why an economic activity is located where it is Proximity to natural resources Connectivity Productive labor Market demand Capital investment Government spending Access to innovation and research Agglomeration economies Lifestyle amenities Persistent Social Issues Wealth and poverty 0 US unemployment 8540 African Americans and Hispanics had it worst 0 Real estate values fell 0 Lost homes to foreclosure 0 Gap between wealthy and poor 0 Increase in health care and education costs Gender equity 0 Gender gap Women only earn 078 to men s 1 Political power mainly in men s hands Health care and aging o 15 GDP North America and the Global Economy Creating a modern global economy 0 World Trade Organization157 member states dedicated to reducing global trade barriers 0 Group of Eight collection of economically powerful countries than meet to discuss key global economic and political issues Attracting skilled immigrants Doing business globally o 3 recent shifts in broader patterns of globalization Adoption of a new more globally integrated model Multinational corporations based elsewhere are buying companies and assets once controlled by North American or European capital Same multinational companies are making sizable investments of their own in other portions of less developed world o Outsourcing a business practice that transfers portions of a company s production and service activities to lowercost settings often overseas
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