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Week 10 Thursday Lecture Notes

by: Kyle Roe

Week 10 Thursday Lecture Notes ANTH131

Marketplace > anthropology, evolution, sphr > ANTH131 > Week 10 Thursday Lecture Notes
Kyle Roe
GPA 3.04
Native American Anthropology

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About this Document

Here's my notes from Thursday's lecture on Week 10. Enjoy :)
Native American Anthropology
Class Notes
Anthropology, 131, Anthro, Native American, Native Americans, Gamble, Kyle Roe, Cheap, Helpful, UCSB, UC Santa Barbara, California
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kyle Roe on Saturday March 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH131 at a university taught by Gamble in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 196 views.

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Date Created: 03/14/15
Warfare Southeast Culture Area War captains were important recognized roles among the Seneca Common precontact Archaeological evidence indicates that warfare was so prevalent in some regions that it affected subsistence The League of the Iroquois O O O O The Grand Council of the Iroquois League assembly of 56 Hoyenah chiefs or sachems Today the seats on the Council are distributed as follows 14 Onondaga 10 Cayuga Some other tribes she changed the slide too fast Probably not that important Created to maintain peace among the Iroquois Started attacking their neighbors instead Wampum Shell beads Wampum Belts 0 Made of beads made from white and purple shells 0 Had great value but did not function as money 0 Usually used to validate an agreement or treaty 0 White shell beads made the North Atlantic whelk shell 0 Purple beads made from the Quahog clam I A lot came from New York State especially Long Island 0 Woven into patterns 0 Dutch started making their own fake purple beads even set up factories I Eventually hired the Iroquois to make their beads 0 Not considered to be owned by anyone owned by a group Games Many groups are asking for their wampum belts back citing NAGPRA Probably did not exist until after European contact Lacrosse was played by many groups in Northeast and Southeast Modern lacrosse is derived from the Native American game 0 Warfare Same basic game layout Prevalent throughout culture area Historic period warfare the result of competition to control fur trade with EuroAmericans Warfare also at least indirectly related to displacement of tribal groups as the colonies expanded into outer areas that weren t their territory Warfare became culturally institutionalized among many Iroquoian tribes Iroquois had a warrior society Lack of resources due to a bad harvest year can produce conflict Bow are arrows long accurate fighting Used shields as well Iroquois Religion Secret societies False face society secret society concerned with healing Masks associated with spirits of the forest Masks had grotesquely distorted facial features Each mask wearer carried turtleshell rattles A group of men would work together in a healing ceremony Would drive out the evil spirits infecting you and making you sick Wore cloaks and wigs as well Husk Face Society is also a secret society Also perform healing ceremonies Spirits associated with agriculture Secret societies important in the Northeast Associated with power and healing Individual secret societies had special knowledge that other secret societies didn t have Iroquois Acculturation By Revolutionary War Iroquois were already living in log cabin houses Able to maintain many aspects of traditional culture through the 19th century Syncretism adopted aspects of EuroAmerican life but still maintaining some traditional life Potawatomi of Michigan and Indiana were subject to intensive missionization and education programs Sent Native American children to boarding schools to force American ways language upon them Root out any culture Make them quotcivilizedquot not savages Would shave the boy s heads Could not wear traditional clothes speak native language Beat them if they did Wiping out a native culture Some escaped these boarding schools One bright side met a lot of Native American children who they share bonds with OOOOOOOO Iroquois Reservations and Reserves In the northeastern US and Canada Lands not desirable to whites Characteristics of Northeast Culture Area Agriculture and food storage important for most groups Hunting and gathering also relatively important among some groups Most groups used pottery with incised designs Groups that emphasized agriculture were mostly sedentary but groups emphasizing huntinggathering were more mobile Social organization was diverse although lineageclan organization was widespread Hereditary leadership was common Confederacies of neighboring tribes existed among some groups particularly among Iroquoian speakers Warfare was prevalent and many villages were palisaded Southeast Culture Area Late Prehistoric Period Cahokia 0 Large civic ceremonial center Abandoned by about 1400 AD Giant earth mounds as large as some Mexican pyramids Densely populated towns People buried with thousands of beads and slaves indicating wealth Max size was in 1200s over 8000 people Located in East St Louis Things had changed by time of European contact Just east of Mississippi River OOOOOOOO Dwellings Dwellings were thatched at least the roof was thatched South palmetto a type of palm was used Generally accommodated a nuclear or small extended family Homesteads 0 Household group often occupied four buildings arranged around a courtyard 0 Would have a summer house and a winter house 0 Summer house was open air because it was so hot and humid 0 Winter house was walled in to protect from cold Settlement Patterns Many palisaded villages Agricultural fields beyond palisades Larger villages and towns often had one or more earth platform mounds Lots of trade going on precontact Subsistence Agriculture was of varying importance throughout the area Maize beans pumpkins squash were the principal products Some semidomesticated plants such as sunflower were also grown Both men and women farmed but women controlled the farm labor Wild foods were of equal importance and in some areas were more important Wild foods included nuts greens berries and wild fruits fame animals and fish Tree nuts hickory nuts were important 0 Nutmeat could be eaten raw but often pounded into powder 0 Then mixed with water to make a soup 0 Or boiled to extract oil SocioPolitical Organization Matrilineal lineages and clans existed throughout the area Lineages were the basic economic group Some groups appear to have moieties Ranking and hereditary status were typical Chiefdoms of varying levels and complexity existed throughout the area 0 Class was important Some chiefdoms may have incorporated relatively large regions with paramount chiefs and villagetown chiefs Warfare often was instigated by competing chiefs 0 Especially chiefs with large swaths of land 0 Competition for land especially if it s good for agriculture Early Historic Impacts De Soto Expedition is the most significant of those occurring during the 16th century 0 Best descriptions of natives in Florida and Southeast at time of contact their lifestyles These expeditions and later contacts resulted in depopulation due to European diseases Franciscans began establishing missions in 1583 along the Atlantic coast By the time of the 1656 rebellion they apparently had 38 missions in northern Florida and Georgia By the 1670s there were many fewer missions in the interior These northern missions were abandoned by the beginning of the 18th century due to hostility from the English to the north John Lawson Significant source on Southeastern Native Americans Wrote about Native Americans habitat plants for the British Less racist than other explorers 0 Compared women to English women etc o Said they more respectful of each other than English women Early Historic Sources of Information In 1700 John Lawson a British explorer traveled about 600 miles into the Carolina back country He published a book which is one of the best sources about the Indians of North Carolina of the time Tuscarora covered him in wooden spikes set ablaze Ironic death for one of the only explorers claiming that Native Americans were not savages Acculturation Cherokee Creek Chickasaw Choctaw and Seminole quotFive Civilized Tribes Maintained culture but adopted many aspects of European culture 0 Piercing enlargement of ears alteration was an indicator of class 0 Wore European clothes Sequoyah s Cherokee Syllabary Sequoyah developed Cherokee alphabet in early 19th century 1825 books and newspapers began to be published in Cherokee language Many Cherokee people became literate in their language Later Historic Impacts By 1800 Southeastern people were living essentially as other Americans Land coveted by EuroAmericans Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830 Over the next 10 years nearly all Southeastern Native Americans were removed to Oklahoma Route to Oklahoma was and is known as the Trail of Tears Some escaped to the remote mountains of North Carolina Characteristics of Southeast Culture Area Nearly all groups depended on agriculture However huntinggathering provided at least as much food to the diet Population density was very high Settlement patterns focused on sedentary villages and towns Some larger regional centers had platform mounds where elite lived andor performed rituals Many villages and towns were surrounded by palisades due to prevalent warfare


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