Notes on Animation
Notes on Animation ENG260
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Talia A. Lubin on Sunday March 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENG260 at University of Oregon taught by Dr. Anthony Hayt in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 124 views. For similar materials see Media Aesthetics in Foreign Language at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 03/15/15
Media Aesthetics 260 Animation 1 Hard beginnings a Back when all animation had to be hand drawn the manual work involved with animation was grueling b To produce 1620 frames per second each minute of film required 960 1200 individual drawings all by hand c Windsor McKay was a newspaper cartoonist who took up the challenge with his first film Gertie At seven minutes long the film comprised over 10000 hand drawn images 2 New developments a In 1914 pioneering animator and film director Earl Hurd developed a groundbreaking process in which animation was drawn on a clear piece of celluloid which was then placed over a background image i This method was called cel animation for the celluloid film used in the process ii Cut the production time dramatically It was possible to draw one background that would stay the same and then all that would need to be animated was the moving part of the image that would be laid on top of the background so that all of it more or less appeared as though it were one image 3 Hurd teamed up with American animator John Bray to put a lock on cell animation tech which discouraged many studios from using it until several years later They were stingy about the patent they wanted an astronomical amount of money if others were going to use the technology No one could or would pay for the right to use it so Hurd and Bray effectively shut it down for anyone else s use 4 Examples of cel animation The Flinstones Scooby Doo They would draw a static background and then they would draw the image of Scooby Doo running on the celluloid As Scooby was animated to run the animators would move his image along the static background and when they got to the end of the background the animators would just move Scooby s image back to the beginning and shoot it again ended up with a repeating background If you look closely you can essentially identify cel animation by the background because the background will always look a little bit different from the foreground Whatever is animated is usually much brighter or more colorful than the background 5 Steamboat Willie a 1928 Animator Walter Disney had the funding to pay Hurd and Bray for use of their patented cel animation technology and Disney used cel animation to make the first significant sound cartoon b Made Mickey Mouse a major figure in film and pop culture Made Disney the leading producer of animated films for the 30 s d Set a standard for how to synch sound with animation i Music for the animation was scored before the animation was done and then the timing of the cartoon was matched to the music 6 Stylistic Choices Naturalism and Abstraction a b c 7 Style Two styles of animation began to diverge as the technology progressed Naturalism pushes towards authentic representations of real life Abstraction accepts the essence of cartoons in lines shapes and colors and that these are abstract forms that can be manipulated in a myriad of ways and don t necessarily try to emulate any sort of natural image Disney strove to push the limits of naturalism as is exemplified in his 1937 animated film Snow White i Again Disney had the money to use Technicolor technology specific way of developing film so as to get saturated levels of color This was copyrighted technology but Disney had the funds to procure the rights to use it ii Disney rotoscoped footage of ballet dancer Marge Champion in order to record Snow White s movements as realistically as possible Rotoscoping is not necessarily always used for realism i Think about A Scanner Darkly overall does push towards realism but there are also things that push the film away from realism the suit Keanu Reaves character wears is meant to hide his identity so its constantly shifting between composites of hundreds of different people Abstract style championed by Disney competitor UPA i Striking artists from Disney started UPA United Productions of America in 1941 1 Ex Of abstract animation Gerald McBoingBoing ii Their abstract style was typified by five main tenants 1 Flattened perspective often not even a foreground and background it s just an image 2 If there is a background it s very abstract Primary colors sometimes just two or three 4 Welldefined character outlines the drawn characters physical outline 5 Limited animation as opposed to the big graceful movements used in Snow White this would have much jerkier and more jarring movements iii Many cartons balance naturalism and abstraction with characteristics from both Some mix these aesthetics in a selfreflexive way iv Don Herstfeld s Rejected height of example of abstraction S b With the 1980 s CGI computer generated imagery developed as a new method for creating animation i Ex Tron 1982 c Computers have been able to replace manual tweening by filling the cels between keyframes with onionskins instead of being hand drawn i Keyframes the start frame and the finish frame of an animation Ex someone moving across a room the keyframes would be someone by the door the start of the action and then someone at the other side of the room the end of the animation The frames in between are tween frames comes from between because they are the frames in between the key frames all of the frames in between ii Onionskins a 2D computer graphics terms for an animation technique in which the animator can see several frames at once like layers of an onion Therefore the animator can create or change an image based on the previous image in the sequence d We can also use computers to create wireframes and then use rendering to create surfaces for a 3D image For people we can use motion capture to get people s movements like in Avatar
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