ARTH Notes from April 14
ARTH Notes from April 14 ARTH 1305
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grecia Sanchez on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 1305 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Max Grossman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see History of Art I in Art at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
April 14th 2016 The Old Saint Peter’s Basilica was constructed by Constantine. It was one of the first churches. The influences of a church are the basilica and aula palatina. Christians decorated the inside of churches unlike Pegans and Romans who decorated outdoors (expensive materials used on the decoration of the exterior) Constantine donated many items to this church The building projects humility and poverty of Christ on the exterior but on the interior, it projects the glory and prestige of God and Empire Nave is the central vessel Transpept is the position of the symbols (like a cross) The bodies placed at this building could never be removed (Constantine never moved the body of Peter below the altar) Constantine built this building around the body of Saint Peter There are 5 entrances, the central doors were closed and the ones on the sides were open (it was a one direction entrance) for pilgrims If you wanted to pray to the precious objects you had to go underground through tunnels There were no chairs because a lot of people could come in Catecumens were the women and men who weren’t allowed to enter the temple (people who prepared to Baptist, sick people, women who were menstruating, criminals could only enter until penalty was over) Atrium was designed for them SAN PAOLO FUORI LE MURA It means “San Paul outside the walls” This survived much longer than Basilica of Saint Peter Clerestory, façade and frescos are there telling the life of Paolo This are spoils Constantinopla was founded on 324. It became the most prosperous city at the Empire. This was great because Constantine managed to move the power to the East (where natural resources are found). It was a strategic position. Constantine was living outside of Rome (for protection) and his successors were almost all Christian.Theodosius was the man who established Christianity as the only legal religion. Christians began persecutions against pegans. Honorios and Arcadius were his sons. Their heredity was the Empire (Empire was split into two since this moment). Since this, the Barbarian invasions intensified, culture was divided, illiterate military societies were increasing. In 410 AD Visigoths invaded Rome, burned it and stole as much gold as they could. Then the ostrogoths invaded Ravenna in 476 AD, which is the date of the end of the Roman Empire. Medieval ages were already in place, Eastern Roman Empire still survives and it is called later Byzantine Empire. Justinian was the most powerful ruler of Byzantine Empire, ruled in 500 AD. MAUSOLEUM OF GALLA PLACIDIA This woman was the wife of Justinian Assumed throne for 15 years Built her chapel Simple structure with simple bricks Inside was decorated with mosaics Centralized plan Greek cross is meant in this building because of the central crossing tower with the 4 arms Entire family is buried there nowadays CHRIST AS GOOD SHEPERD He is not a simple shepherd By this time, all leaders of Rome are Christians He wears gold He also wears the purple cape which is also worn by emperors Image made in 3D High quality As the empire arises, art is also emerging OLD FARMER OF CORYCUS It is an early book st Invented in 1 century by Romans Rotulus are scrolls, Jews still use them, it is the primary media for writing Rotulus was used by Greeks, Jews and Romans When you paint your rotulus it is called illustrated manuscript Parchment and Vellum refer to the materials used Scriptorium were the rooms where one could produce manuscripts Folio is a one double page These books were written with no punctuation and no spaces, this was because making one was quite expensive and you saved space by no adding punctuation. Libraries were composed of 20 or 30 codices Major libraries were 100 codices Only 3 codices survived 75 folios survived 30 illustrations This included all the famous works of Vergil and other thinkers CHRIST BEFORE PILATE First Christian manuscript Christ is depicted tall, thin, with beard and long hair, much like the standard of Christ Annas and Caiaphas were the ones who delivered Jesus Barbaras was the criminal who got freed instead of Jesus We are at the beginning of the Middle Ages It is made of purple vellum and tempere The book has survived In Christianity, originally the New Testament had more books Gospel is a testimony Old and New testaments had more gospels At the image, we see two emperors beside Christ, but we know there were no emperors by the time of Christ (this shows lack of knowledge) SUICIDE Earliest known image of the Crucifix of Christ It belonged to a box (the image was one side of the box) which probably contained the bread of Eucharistic Judas is on the other extreme, he sold Jesus for 30 coins of silver At the right of Judas, there is Mary, then Saint John, and Christ. At the other extreme there is a soldier who kills Christ and is called Longinus Eyes of Christ are open, this means his triumph over death We are at an experimental period of the image of Christ Images standardized came later BYZANTINE EMPIRE Long period of ignorance It is the Middle Ages, between Late Antiquity and Renaissance Emergence of many different countries, cultures and languages It is the Eastern Roman Empire In the west, it was chaotic because they were many tribes Christianity spread from East to West Spread from the countryside and once there, to the north Scandinnavia and Russia were the last places where Christianity came At the Byzantine, Greek was the main language (Latin was second) Egypt became greek speaking EMPEROR JUSTINIAN Ruled from 327565 Empire almost collapsed due to the instability in the political system The empire distracted people by launching war EARLY BYZANTINE ERA Justinian conquers west It is the end of iconoclasm (843) BIRTH OF ISLAM Third monotheism from 622 to 751 From the moment it was founded, the religion was militarized They claimed Spain, Saudi Arabia, North Africa, Iran all the way to Afghanistan and Pakistan It conquered its territory in 13 decades Caused the byzantine to lose territory JUSTINIAN AS WORLD CONQUERED Byzantine was at its strongest There is an equestrian image of Justinian It reminds of the image of a barbarian Below him, there is Terra (goddess of earth) Meaning Justinian conquers earth through the victory over the barbarians Justinian is dressed like a roman pax romana emperor, meaning he will bring peace to the empire Above there is Christ Caesarpapium is the feature of Justinian giving to the people the idea of the church and state belong together (they are one) Head of state religion is the emperor, Christ and Justinian are the same person with the same power There are pegan images that link Justinian to Pax Romana Below there are barbarians giving gifts from all over the world (elephants from Asia, lions from Africa, etc) He is projecting the message of prosperity th April 19 2016 HAGIA SOFIA Means holly wisdom of God in greek This is not the first church (there were a few others built before this one) Its construction began in 532 by Justinian Lasted 5 years to be completed, it was a fast process Architects are Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus Anthemius was a mathematician, he was an expert of kinetics, theorist of physics, and expert of geometry Isidorus was a physicist expert of system of vaults (domes) We have a primary source of this building which is the testimony of Porcopius The interior is decorated with polychrome marbles brought by different countries It was considered the largest church for 100 years Served three purposes: 1) Church of Patriarch, which is the eastern pope, meaning the highest position, 2) Coronation Cathedral, which means emperors had to be crowned here, if they weren’t, they couldn’t be emperors, 3) Repository of precious objects which belonged to Jesus and his apostols, this was believed to have special powers, you could pray to them 935 AD, this building was turned into a church Towers at the corners were added later by the Islamic culture It is a museum today The reason why there are so many domes is physics. The domes have two forces oppressing against it: vertical force (gravity) and horizontal force. The forces that push inwards the dome can be contained with the two half domes, and these domes can be contained simoultaneously with three half domes It is an interrupted system of domes, continuum The building also has pillars that help to support the system (the thin structures to the sides) It is a centralized plan Focal point is the dome, the center of the whole structure In Byzantine culture, the dome means heaven. Seen from above, the focal point is seen as a circle within a square (square means earth), this gives us the idea of transition from earth to heaven In the interior, there is polychrome revetment The top of the building was decorated with pure gold in form of mosaic, which makes this building probably the most expensive construction The dome has collapsed several times (architects pushed structure so many times that this hasn’t resisted) Pendentias are the 4 corners of the dome It has Byzantine capitals VIRGIN Hagia Sofia was completed in 537 but the interior decoration (mosaics) were completed in 578 Iconoclastic controversy means the constant debates over the issue of Jesus getting depicted on images In 730, patriarch decreted all images from saints, Jesus, apostols, etc. were destroyed Since this date, there were many patriarchs who would do the contrary and then restore the images, but another one would destroy them later, and so on until 842. When all images are permitted The image of the Virgin may be a reconstruction It was common to pray to Mary first, since Jesus is the highest person it was believed he wasn’t available at all times unlike Mary who would do anything for his son Byzantine style is abstract (it has distortions) Her head is smaller than her body (body is alarged) We can note this same feature by looking at Christ It is a mosaic tesserae It has been painted (just the details) Ravenna was ruled by Theodoric the Great SAN VITALE It remains as the most important building in Europe Byzantine didn’t begin with construction but finished it Centralized plan Archbishop is the byzantine bishop who oversaw the construction It has 8 piers that support the dome The decoration of the interior can be traced back to Constantinopla It has byzantine capitals Columns are made of proconnesian marble It is still standing today, but its decoration has disappeared in its majority We see at one side of the altar the image of Justinian and the at the other side there is his wife. They were never in Italy but they made their presence there through paintings In the image of Justinian, Jesus is wearing the imperial purple. To Justinian right, there is his army, then we also see Maximinus (name is scripted) and 2 scholars from the church Their foot is all floating (feature you can tell when the foot is on a ballet position) There is no rationality in the image (you can see this by looking at the toga) These are all simple and flat figures There is a use of space throughout the whole image We are far from Classicism Paten is the large dish in which the bread of the mass is guarded ISLAM Islam followers invaded west. They managed to get to Spain. It begins in 622. The leader is prophet Muhammad, he saw a series of revelations from God and he brings the message to others. Islam means submission to God. Their Bible is the Coran, with 14 chapters (their primary teachings). Caliphs are the religious leaders after Muhammad.
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