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CHEM 235 Organic Chem

by: Zackery Perry

CHEM 235 Organic Chem Chem 235

Zackery Perry

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1st notes
Organic Chemistry 1
Professor Nickles
Class Notes
Witting, DielsAlder
25 ?




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zackery Perry on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 235 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Professor Nickles in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

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Date Created: 04/27/16
environmental-m... 2/24/2016 5:10 PM e’d es el fish al n o her t-spring-ignited-the- altered the course of history,”these pesticid ea that if humankind poisoned east cancer. She told almost no one. Sh r into the vast cycles of the earth and i y up the food chain to threaten bird and that Carson drew from weren’t new; the ent Sprat it was nearly impossible for her to walk t d by synthet Carson was the first to put them all together for the gener gh she did notta and case studiesCarson influenced the appeared whics most celebrated hermit, Henry David Thoreau, wrote about l. To hide her baldness, she wore a dark brown wig. e on pesticides. She was 56 and dying of brled bugs but also made their wa ind. “Our heedless and destructive acts ente w York Times conclusions. In doing so, Carson, the citizen-scientist, spawned a revolution. the controversial environmental classic “Silt the time. tomy. Her pelvis was so riddled with fractures th SEPT. 21, 2012 “Every on“Silent Spring” was published 50 years ago this month. Thoumore than two million copies, ma Magazine By ELnZJuGReIS, 9LtD, less than aenviroamdenntolnd.veilenttpsrnogoperesentsacvld in turn poison humank environmental-m... 2/24/2016 5:10 PM ut s e ed in d n. global t-spring-ignited-the- t no single work has had the vironmental cause or another, age, fertilizer made from hors s of unfettered human intervention liver this Jeremiad of ‘Silent Spring,’son’s elder sister, Marian, did shift work mpelling case, in 1989, for the crisis of e riverbank called the Bottoms, it prevent in the town of Springdale. From her bedroom riverbank from the Carsons’ four-room log cabi urgent — since Carson’s day. Yevoked in the name of one en cked and poor as Carson did. She was ty, in Pittsburgh. After graduation, she moved to Baltimore, “FieThey are widely considered responsible for shaping our view ofhe smell of tanks. The factory, the agination andMcKibben says. “She was Jacques Cousteau before there was JacqueSpringdale. Rachel won a scholarship to ommittee. We still see the effecting concrete change in quite the way that Carson did. ell whose ventures inevitably failed; Car “People think she came out of uitoes that bred in the swampland near th w York Times up the Allegheny River from Pittsburgh, ng on their porches in the evening. less than a mile away, down the gently sloping “the nun of nature,” as she is called, is frequently If anything, environmenWhatSswaasitRhachallweThe sea held an immense apHer father, Robert Carson, was a ne’er-do-w timthrough Cimpbactwoa“uiigloSn“ThasmuisibuottlmCousteau.boowmiojftkPasparrs,wiasdsdthegreatennpsylvhaitaerlyer plant. Carson’s mother, Maria, the environmental-m... 2/24/2016 5:10 PM elf. light on theking ew, rson was at ken world. t-spring-ignited-the- ely unseen things. ng proposition for anyone, let son then asks her readers, “By of wonder” about nature. In herwould put her in. Ta ted a master’s degree before dropping out Driven by her love of the sea, she wrotegate pesting her ideal world to one that readers kn e Senner workings of largmple and sometimesas an head and neck were outstretched, and the h Carson describes “a town in the heart of America tion had silenced the rebirth of new life in this stric en biting at the ground.” Car , roads and gutters coexist with nature — until a mysterious b the Depression, with the catch of theBook Award for “The Sea Around Us” and established herself as White, whoides outside their back doors and as e worked to establish a “sense Fish and Wildlife Service, an agency founded under the New Deal. Eager to be a ng on what she rejor books, gently suggested that she inve ogy at Johns Hopkins Universityarticulate sophisticated ideas about the i popular this indelible image of a squirrel: “Thehe relied upon this ready army of w York Times Carson writes, “no enemy ac with its surroundings.” Cognizant of connecti begins with a myth, “A Fable for Tomorrow,” in whic Carson became a science editor for the U.S.y ambivalent about taki Carson knew that her target audience of wherto helhiup.powriter, she freelanced for The Atlantic andnlacwatotnteywlovet, doshecconrcerdeercttioftsmbsthe”sab environmental-m... 2/24/2016 5:10 PM na s an ff nd us s d that d out e out t-spring-ignited-the- ile about what arrogant re.” “The control of nature wa nfrrson’s assistant, after she founars at a 40-foot-high nest several books on marine life, “had ever indictment of thne Jacobs’s “Death and Life of American progress. In Carson’s view, technological tant thinking of their time, which demanded see three kind, in the back seat of his parents’ sedan. to serve man. “She wanted us to understan tic. “She was more host us is not diminished as a human being?” afe at Any Speed” and Betty Friedan’s “Feminine Mystique” allget in our bodies.” Safi ” to be compared with Harriet Beecher Stowe’s “Uncle Tom’s turned to his mate and her chicks with a thrashing fish in hi was baptized in the Presbyterian Church, was not religious. Oneock some of the shine ored through bi t thriving osprey, one species of bird that was beginning to di nitive biography, “Witness for Natu e effects of synthetic pesticides; it was an arms published at the spher and MacArthur fellow who has published nature through chemistry, in the name of w York Times otherPoint, an eastad “Silent Spring” when he was 14 years ol Both books reflected the mainstream Protesexisted suffering to a living creature, who among stasized, her tone sharpened toward the apocalyp Her willingness to pose“Silent Spring” was more than a study of th one,” says Carl Safina, an oceanogra acquiescing in an acwe areregusttCarson argued, should not seek to dominatenlueoohhees,Asettct,”Rstlthsgquoersdnps and fishnets, a glossy black osprey re environmental-m... a 2/24/2016 5:10 PM ct g e, cke 939 by glut of ected iation,” arson t-spring-ignited-the- applied to the skin in powder she wrote about,” he told me over lunch T among American consumers. high-profile lawsuits on the part of afabout a mile from Yale University’s Beine d peregrine falcons weren’t raising chicerns related to DDT were mounting among effectiveness that led to its promotion, C d that after the war, out-of-work pilots anthe National Audubon Society for public d aerially over large areas of the United States to control a product that didn’t operate as advertised —“this was shockin s first synthesized in 1874 and discovered to kill insects in 1 Md., which was administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Servicur environment?” to seek new markets for DD s biologist, Roland Clement, for review. Clement, who will turn 100 in November, in, knew that such cson’s papers are kept. “I knew of everything control the sically ill when I learned that ospreys an But it wasn’t just DDT’sd-1940s, concould impa w York Times before publication. They sent galleys to oor of a retirement community in New Haven, r pesticides, it was DDT — spraye about radiation to snap her readers to attention, drawing a parallel between nuclear fallout and oduct and labor. In her speeches, Carson claime “I almost threw uThough Carson talked about otheime Carson began to be interesthystThe galleys landed on the desk of Audubon’ becthe in a way mosquitoes and fire ants — that stood in for this excess. DDT waor thisfuge in Laurel,upportout “Silent environmental-m... or ed 2/24/2016 5:10 PM o one micals ides here were ins no t-spring-ignited-the- ttee. In her testimony, Carson o established a presidential committee to om the market after their land was spray ng television news program hosted by a thrall, was part of the problem. That’s ub, which delighted Carson. But nothingson, “On a Farther call for a ban on pesticides. “I think che citizens had the right to know how pestic e food, to achieve “east-curtain parity.” owing largely to its three-parw Yorker. And it also tried to stop Audubon from government to dump pesticides on people’s property without included an editorial about the chemical industry’s reaction t refusuburban Maryland that in the course of the interarance before the Senate subcommi cultural propagandist in the employ of the Scentral tenet of “Silent Spring”: “If the Bill of Rights conta iety declined to give it an official endorsement. rson wouldn’t survive to see the show broadcast. Lear as well as William Souder, authore waamong them President John F. Kennedy, wher and dismissed as a r appearance on “CBS Reports,” an hourlo ced with a chance to do so, Carson didn’t was banned fr w York Times also selected for the Book-of-the-Month Cl3/magazine/how-silen , the federal government, when in industry’s Western countries’ ability to producfederal regulation. Instead, she argued that e threatening letter to Houghton Mifflin, Velsicol’s general counsel insinuated that t atened to sue both Houghton Mifflin and The Ne which was published on Sept. 27, 1962, flew off the shelves, The book, The industry’s reshoepseeon“SlietBut Carson also had She argued vehemently against aerial spraying, which allowed the Yorestaforsom pekShore,” Sevareid later said th“sinsteliidfanedces” ntedotsav’swtoai:p”radswere being used on their private property. She was reiterating a environmental-m... a if 2/24/2016 5:10 PM e the l T, except s, it is t-spring-ignited-the- — from the Clean Air and w regularly made by super-PACs h is a little more complicated. anies manufactured about 90,000 dividuals or by public officiale pesticide manufacturers’ would accept th of what Carson’s legacy actually means.ibicoff, the Democratr message ‘Silent Spring’ is serialized, the chemica s attributed to Carson insects were increasingly resistant to DDT, as ited States banned the domestic sale of DD ide. “He told mee got both too much credit and too much blame after “Silent g its peak; in 1963, U.S. compin: as long as Cantinueds founding of the Environmental Protection Agency, in 1970. Butbitter partisan rters and her detractors. The trut untry to produce the pesticide at the time, made 3,653 tons.) distributed either by private inform nongovernmental groups that she was already on the wane. Despinder of the environmental movement,” Clement says. “She stirred vement, it also sowed the seeds of its own destruction. even her allies have different opinions gn countries, the companies would consid issions to new energy sources. “As soon as w York Times, he sa ght years after Carson’s death, that the Un r book, there was mounting evidence that some of the new environmental movement had several successe “Don’t mess with the boys and their business.” The results of her efforts were mixed, andh Clement was a supporter of Carson’s, he believes that shtion to Carson’s book was a prot guasureayvoacledeforCarWohetons. But by the following year, DDT production in Americainieenf72hlaianmedsttessteo environmental-m... y s 2/24/2016 5:10 PM to 2010en, theng ilent t-spring-ignited-the- ed a scrubber, installed in chel had lived,” she said, “we can interfere with the body’s t Spring” and stewardship of the e that “Silent Spring” did, Souder arguesan environmental health analyst and on, makes a similar charge: “Today, millionin compliance with current E.P.A. see the smokestacks of the Cheswick coal-fired cause one person sounded a false alarm.” cized and partisainue. Her opponents hold her responsible for d stack and a newer one, call that mocked its woeful tone. a to be charged with using “soft science” and with cherry- effect in 2016. ly agreed with. The Web site, which is run b t, argued that without pesticides, America would be overrun bys — the chemicals thatthat “banni rson may have regarded “Silen e approval of the Allegheny County Health Department, it stayed o result has been an increasingly factionalized arena. new ones will take chemical industry undertook an expensive negative P.R. campaign, which includedr. Thout full emission controls. The plants says w York Times advocacy group based in Washingtenerations ago.”e that followed itsy years later, the attacks on Carson cont old bedroom window in Springdale, you can In a move worthyOne reason that tCarson was among the firBut much of CarsToday, from Rachel Carson’s battle.” circulating “The DesSprengvroashapicking studies to suitco-ahormoinhetystemactupllinosundttuttabaustne about endocrinerepairs, but with th environmental-m... 2/24/2016 5:10 PM ear er s a never sit porch, all, t-spring-ignited-the- ld Life Of 'Silent Spring'. ue uniforms and repairs to the of the difficulty of making a cl others. The plant buys fresh wat id. One hundred years ago, when mmer. “She’s a motivator.” For B Carson’s worldview. “When we start messing Bell said that it’s not about money. “I story yellow-brick house with a broad front As David Finley, president of Springdale Borough put it, the City” sincrepresentatives in a class-action suit, which charges that the “sounds like money” to many rsonal-injury attorneys. (Because out of that smokestack,” she sa ssions that they claim are damaging 1,500 households. One of the Kilowatt, the cartoon character of the electricity lobby. ainst industry to protect the health of their families. Foundation and the recipient of a Guggenheim fellowship. headline: The Wi ll said it was “Silent Spring” that encouraged her to step forward. “Rachel Carson i erty damhad the same concern — one that informed w York Times health care employee who lives in a two- ng at her kitchen table after wo Springdale’s board oA few months ago, two citizens in Springdale volunteered to bet is the creation of pe noifrommun taipaslseimalllrtdppol.Sriititdlel,immst3a-ticc-nEliza Editor: Sheila GlaserloappettseiNewntomSepappen.” © 2016 The New York Times Company


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