Anthropology Notes 4/26/16 Exam 4
Anthropology Notes 4/26/16 Exam 4 2597
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Metzgar on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2597 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Professor Ehrensal in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
Animal Husbandry -domestication of animals follows the development of cultivation -a number of horticultural societies mix cultivation with hunting &/or fishing Pastoralism *based upon the herding of livestock Patterns Nomadism -only economic activity is raising livestock -tribal based -minimal material possessions -various limiting fertility practices -moving on a regular basis -always requires trade Transhumance -mixed economy, part lives in a village while the other herds -village will cultivate (women, children, elders) -herders will handle livestock (men, older boys) Production in Non-Industrial Societies -division of labor by age and gender -production by handicraft -degree of specialization varies Work in Pre-Industrial Societies -focuses on subsistence societies -is embedded in other social institutions -is communal, for the most part Industrialism -a period in human history that begins after about 1750 in Europe Characteristics of Work in Industrial Societies -high degree of specialized labor -highly gendered -strong link to social status -work is carried out in the ‘workplace’ -division between the domestic and non-domestic -time oriented, clock becomes important -systems of authority are specific to workplace -relations with peers are important Summary Between 90,000-45,000 years ago modern humans spread across the globe in almost all conceivable ecological niches using foraging as a subsistence strategy while remaining a single species. About 12,000 years ago some societies domesticated plants and then animals, and began producing their own food. The changes in subsistence strategies had profound effects on the social structures of modern humans.
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