Hy 101 Week 14 Notes
Hy 101 Week 14 Notes HY 101
Popular in Western Civ To 1648
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Crews on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Daniel Riches in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Western Civ To 1648 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
WEEK 14 Notes Religious Wars Mainstream Protestant Development Jean Calvin o Geneva, originally from France Driven out of France for religious ideas o Institutes of the Christian Religion, 1 edition, 1536 Calvin continuously worked on it and edited it o Pre-destination was the core of his thinking o Calvinism becomes a broad movement Lacked an international governing body Church of England (Anglican Church) o King Henry VII, r. 1509-1547 Wanted to get a divorce, so he created his own church o Used to put the monarchy first, eventually it became more like Lutheranism and Calvinism European Religious Wars Schmalkaldic Wars 1546-1555 o League of Schmalkadic 1531 Unit of mostly Lutheran territories o Emperor Karl V, r. 1519-1556 Catholic o Religious Peace of Augsburg 1555 Legalized Lutheranism Cuius regio, eius religio Whoever rules the territory, decided the religion A commoner could move to territory where they practiced the same religion Didn’t solve the tension French religious/civil wars 1562-1596 o Huguenots – French Calvinist 10% of the population, wealthiest o Monarchy vs. Huguenots o St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre Most violent, memorable day of this war Wedding to patch up tension turned into a blood bath o Edict of Nantes, 1598 Calvinists given protection but still restricted; did not solve the tension either Dutch Revolt (Eighty Years’ War) 1566/68-1648 o King Philip II of Spain, r. 1556-1598 Counter-reformation Catholic Provoked a rebellion by trying to make Catholicism the religion of his territories o Prince William of Orange 1533-1584 Leader of the rebellion English Civil War, 1642-1651 o King Charles I, r. 1625-1649 o Puritans Wanted to purify the Anglican Church of the remaining aspects of the Catholic Church o King is captures, and eventually beheaded o Oliver Cromwell, 1594-1658 A Puritan leader Lord Protector 1653-1658 Rise of the House of Habsburg Habsburg were the ruling family in Austria 1438 Albrecht III elected Holy Roman Emperor o The Habsburgs remained Holy Roman Emperors until the dissolution of the Empire in 1806 1477, Maxilmillian I marries Mary of Burgundy o Habsburgs get Burgundian lands (Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg, Rhineland Territories) 1496, Maximillian and Mary’s son Philip marries Princess Juana of Spain o Habsburgs eventually gets Spain as well as Spanish holding in Italy and New World 1521, Philip and Juana’s son Ferdinand marries Princess Anna of Bohemia and Hungary, eventually bringing these lands to the Habsburgs Thirty Years’ War 1618-1648 Bohemian Phase, 1618-1625 o Letter of Majesty, 1609 Calvinist gets a promises from Habsburg family about their religious freedoms Not kept by Emperor Ferdinand II, r. 1619-1637 o The defenestration of Prague, 1618 Symbolic moment to demonstrate that he didn’t agree with his administrators by throwing them out of a window of the palace o Battle of White Mountain, 1620 Outside of Prague Loss for the rebels The Danish Phase, 1625-1629 o King Christian IV of Denmark, r. 1588-1648 Not an impressive king Lutheran o Albrecht von Wallenstein, 1583-1639 One of the most powerful generals in the Empire, teds forces to exile the Danish o Danish driven out of the war o Edict of Restitution, 1629 Strict set of laws made to end the war but only made it worse about religion and politics Swedish Phase, 1630-1635 o King Gustavus Adolphus Very impressive general, dies in combat Lutheran o Sack of Megeleburg, 1631 Protestant city Successful siege that led to more than 50% of the population dying o Battle of Breileinfield, 1631 o Battle of Lutzel, 1632 Tactile win o Battle of Nordlingen, 1634 o Peace of Prague, 1635 Many protestant leaders wanted out of this war and came together to make peace; didn’t work French/Final Phase, 1635-1648 o The French had been sending aid to the protestants for a while o Cardinal Richelieu Catholic Church member; in charge of the French government o The addition of the French changes the tide of the war o Westphalia Negotiations Munster Osnabruck The Peace of Westphalia, 1648 Consequences of the War: o Legal changes to legalizes Lutheranism and Calvinism o Violent impact Spread of deceases Violence o End of universalism in Europe Theorist of the New Political World Both men came from the war Jean Bodin, 1530-1596 o Six books of a Commonweale 1 edition, 1576 o Sovereignty: the right to give law regardless of their consent Absolute: the law given power must be unbound, “above the law” Perpetual: resides in one body Invisible o Fist political form was the family Father the leader Only natural political bond o Soveirnor should be above religion Thomas Hobbs, 1588-1679 o Similar to Bodin o English; study at Oxford, great intellectual o Everyone is born with a natural freedom o “War of all against all” o rade a little bit of your freedom in exchange for order and peace o Leviathan
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