Cubism and Responses to Cubism
Cubism and Responses to Cubism ARHI 2400
Popular in History of Art Survey, Part II
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessika Song on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARHI 2400 at University of Georgia taught by Beth Fadeley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see History of Art Survey, Part II in Art History at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
%WDKUO▯ Cubism Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) - Born in the south of Spain where he grew up as a child prodigy; supported by his art teacher father. Attended the Barcelona Academy of Fine Art; prior to attending he had already mastered all aspects of late 19th century Realist technique. - While living in Barcelona, he started to move away from the academic mode of art. Picasso epitomized modernism in his enduring quest for innovation, which resulted in sudden shifts from one style to another. Blue Period [1901-1904] - A melancholy state of mind in which Picasso used primarily blue colors (creating a monochromatic palette) to depict worn, alienated ﬁgures. - His forms take on slumping postures that reﬂect his depression, but most importantly, evoke the archaic and the primitive. - Moves to Paris in 1904 and occupies a studio in Montmartre. Rose Period [1904-1906] - Characterized by a more cheery style with orange and pink colors. Although the palette changes to lighter and brighter tones, Picasso still focuses on archaic forms. - By 1905 Picasso becomes a favorite of American art collector, Gertrude Stein, who supports Picasso ﬁnancially and artistically. Gertrude Stein - Picasso’s attraction to the archaic and primitive takes him to a museum dedicated to human history. - He uses Iberian sculpture as inspiration in painting her face, incorporating the planar form seen in Iberian stone heads. - Most importantly, Picasso had discovered a new approach to the representation of the human form. Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (The Young Ladies of Avignon) - This painting was a direct response to Matisse’s, Joy of Life. - Picasso was extremely intent on ﬁnding a new way to represent the ﬁve female ﬁgures in their interior space. - Instead of depicting them as voluminous ﬁgures, he fractured their shapes and interwove them with equally jagged planes, representing drapery and empty space. - Picasso extended the radical nature of the painting even further by depicting the ﬁgures inconsistency — ancient Iberian sculptures inspired the calm, ideal features of three young women on the left, while the two energetic faces on the right were inspired by African masks. - The two groupings are broken into separate planes, suggesting that the painting can be viewed from more than one perspective. - “Demoiselles” is another word for prostitute and Avignon is where people could go to meet said prostitutes. - It should be noted that although Picasso was an avant-garde artist, he was also a traditional artist. - The depicted fruit is a symbol of female sexuality. Georges Braque (1882-1963) - Fauve painter who was one of the ﬁrst to see Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, which caused him to rethink his own painting style. - Picasso and Braque go to the south of France to see the work of Cézanne, whose art ﬁrst explored the idea of painting in tiny cubes. Analytic Cubism [1907-1911]: the ﬁrst phase of Cubism, developed jointly by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, in which the artists analyzed form from every possible vantage point to combine the various views into one pictorial whole. - A critic gave them the name “cubists” because Matisse explained to the critic that they painted in little cubes. - The cubists rejected naturalistic depictions, preferring compositions of shapes and forms abstracted from the conventionally perceived world. The Portuguese - The subject of the painting is a Portuguese musician dissected and placed in dynamic interaction with the space around the man and his guitar. - Braque includes stenciled letters and numbers, which adds to the painting’s complexity. The text appears ﬂat and the shadowed forms create depth, making the text stand out more, thus playing with the viewers’ perception of two-dimensional and three-dimensional space. Synthetic Cubism [1912-early 1920s]: a later phase of Cubism, in which paintings and drawings were constructed from objects and shapes cut from paper or other materials to represent parts of a subject, in order to engage the viewer with pictorial issues, such as ﬁguration, realism, and abstraction. Still Life with Chair-Caning - A mixed-media painting in which Picasso imprinted a photo-lithographed pattern of a cane chair seat on the canvas and then pasted a piece of oil cloth on it. - Framed with a piece of rope, the still life challenges the viewer’s understanding of reality — the photographically replicated chair caning seems “real,” but it is only an illusion/ representation of the object; in contrast, the painted areas do not imitate anything, technically making them more “real.” 4GURQPUGU▯VQ▯%WDKUO▯ Responses to Cubism Orphism [1910s]: an offshoot of Cubism that focused on pure abstraction and bright colors; perceived as key in the transition from Cubism to Abstract art. - Pioneered by Robert and Sonia Delaunay, who relaunched the use of color during the monochromatic phase of Cubism. - Sonia remained committed to color, but was often overlooked because of her husband. She designed costumes, clothing, and even the exterior of cars —translated art to the decorative. Purism [late 1910s]: an early 20th century art movement that embraced the “machine aesthetic” and sought purity of form in the clean functional lines of industrial machinery. - Founded by “Le Corbusier;” opposed Synthetic Cubism and the idea of decorative art. Believed that art should be focused on clean, functional lines as well as pure form; thus, lessened his use of color as not to undermine the importance of form. - This “machine aesthetic” inspired Ferdinand Léger, who focused on urban environments and painted surfaces that mimicked the hard surfaces and sheen associated with machines. Futurism: an early 20th century Italian art movement that championed war as a cleansing agent and that celebrated the speed and dynamism of modern technology. - Members of this group were Italian artists who were indignant over the political and cultural decline of Italy and published numerous manifestos in which they aggressively advocated revolution, both in society and in art — Filippo Marinetti’s, “Manifesto of Futurism” published in French newspaper, Le Figaro, 1909. - Marinetti insisted that a racing automobile was more beautiful than the Victory of Samothrace — a reference to the Greek statue that, for early 20th century artists, represented classicism and the glories of past civilizations. Unique Forms of Continuity in Space - Produced by Umberto Boccioni, who searched for sculptural means of expressing dynamic movement and ﬂuid form. - This piece highlights the formal and spatial effects of motion, expanding and interrupting a single plane by breaking the pedestal in two. - The bright gold shine embodies the optimism of war, as well as militarism. - Symbolic of the dynamic quality of modern life — ﬁgure almost disappears behind the blur of its movement, just as people, buildings, and stationary objects become blurred when seen from a moving car. Suprematism [1915-1935]: a style formulated by Kazimir Malevich to convey his belief that the supreme reality in the world is pure feeling, which attaches to no object and thus calls for new, nonobjective forms in art — shapes not related to objects in the visible world. - Going back to the Expressionist effort of translating pure feeling into form, but also a very modernist though of emphasizing emotions. - Malevich was interested in the fragmentation of form and abstraction; possibly could have been the ﬁrst purely abstract artist (Kandinsky was abstract, but also used representational forms and color).
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