Chapter 4- Consciousness
Chapter 4- Consciousness PSY0010
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Blades on Friday March 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY0010 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Lausberg in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 03/20/15
Introduction to Psychology Chapter 4 Consciousness Consciousness your awareness of everything that is going on around you inside your own head at any given moment which you use to organize your behavior Including thoughts sensations and feelings Walking consciousness thoughts feelings and sensations are clear and organized feel alert Altered State of Consciousness Occurs when there is a shift in the quality or pattern of your mental activity Thoughts may become fuzzy and disorganized may feel less alert thoughts may take bizarre turns Could mean being in a state of increased alertness Sleep The Biology of Sleep Circadian Rhythms sleepwake cycle 0 Ultimately controlled by the brain speci cally by an area in the hypothalamus in uences the glandular system The Role of the Hypothalamus o Suprachiasmatic nucleus releases melatonin and is the internal clock that tells people when to wake up and when to fall asleep 0 Sensitive to changes in light The Importance of Sleep and the Price of Not Sleeping Microsleeps brief sidesteps into sleeping lasting only seconds Sleep deprivation loss of sleep 0 Impairs mental and physical functioning 0 Symptoms include trembling hands inattention staring off into space droopy eyelids general discomfort irritability depression increased risk of insulin resistance Sleep forms memories 0 Caused by sleep s enhancement of the synaptic connections among neurons Theories of Sleep The Adaptive Theory of Sleep states that sleep is a product of evolution 0 Proposes that animals and humans evolved different sleep patterns to avoid being present during their predators39 normal hunting times The Restorative Theory of Sleep states that sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body 0 Chemicals that were used up during the day are replenished cellular damage is repaired The Stages of Sleep REM rapid eye movement Sleep 0 Relatively psychologically active type of sleep most common when a person is dreaming 0 Voluntary muscles are inhibited person sleeping moves very little NonREM NREM Sleep 0 Spans from lighter stages to a much deeper more restful kind of sleep 9 Electroencephalograph allows scientists to record brainwave activity as a person passes through the various stages of sleep and determine what type of sleep the person has entered 0 Beta waves occur on the EEG when a person is wide awake and mentally active Very small and very fast 0 Alpha waves occur on the EEG when a person is relaxed and drowsy Slightly larger and slower o Theta waves replace alpha waves when the person falls asleep 39 Slower a haw marl Hurray Vial ES 14 JETI six 1quot 95quot 39m39w MEaim it Wi f h u ll Ilaiii Hi EmailFa Warm mill Film1 quotEiil lfj is Elmj i ngrig Ear1 n f i w Wagaw arrive e cur quotmfg 39EaIii39nuiti Marge iiila I Ha l Ha zg l j nirilm Elixir15 r3 tuttirah l39l39 39 ij Lit 3 1 A 7 u i39iil 39l 39Enrlleil la HT rH lquot quotL L lg 15 F 5 5 DiquotEm Ilai i I BEEN I39ifi iia ijifll iihlgl39le wi39 l amp inri E V 77 n rquot v m w c natiqaiil gratin wailmi 3 I J a la Lil39hmta 51 IEELE Marga l iHEFe 315133quot HEMI r 7 PF Ad39lmm at d 7I 7 9 gnaw f 7 39 m75 7 it Eq39uidg39T 1331 illiIf r E 7 i r wwvwl lq F19 jntm lg 7 t p H 7 Eillrk39iiriji n r igigii m inlain 7 l 7 Ler Huilid iquot rurlrl39riillrlu39ia hE39HltdillEr39EiiFE39il L39139E39Ht39ril395 HitTe Emit r lif39filda almth N1 RampK Stage 1 Light Sleep 0 Theta wave activity increases alpha wave activity fades away o If people are awakened they will probably not believe that they were actually sleeping 0 May experience hypnogogic imageshallucinations o Hypnic jerk may occur body jerks awake N2 RampK Stage 2 Sleep Spindles 0 Body temperature continues to drop as people drift further into sleep 0 Heart rate slows breathing becomes more shallow and irregular o EEG will show rst signs of quotSleep spindlesquot brief bursts of activity lasting only a second or two 0 Theta waves N3 RampK Stages 3 and 4 Delta Waves 0 Deepest stage of sleep often referred to as slowwave sleep SWS or deep sleep 0 Growth hormones are released from the pituitary gland and reach their peak 0 Body is a the lowest level of functioning 0 People are hard to awaken when awake may be confused at rst R RampK REM o The sleeping person will go back up through N2 and then into a stage which body temperature increases to a nearwaking level after spending some time in N3 0 Eyes move rapidly under the eyelids the heart beats much faster brain waves resemble beta waves the person is still asleep What is the purpose of REM sleep 0 REM rebound a person will experience greatly increased amounts of REM sleep the next night after being deprived of REM sleep 0 REM sleep is due to emotionally stressful days NREM sleep is due to physically demanding days Sleep Disorders Nightmares and REM behavior disorder 0 REM behavior disorder the brain mechanisms that normally inhibit the voluntary muscles fail allowing the person to thrash around and get up and act out nightmares Night Terrors o A state of panic experienced while sound asleep Sleepwalking also known as somnambulism o Partially due to heredity Insomnia o The inability to get to sleep stay asleep or get a good quality of sleep 0 Some psychological causes worrying trying too hard to sleep anxiety 0 Some physiological causes too much caffeine indigestion aches and pain 0 Several steps people can take to help them sleep 1 Go to bed only when you are sleepy 2 Don39t do anything in your bed but sleep 3 Don39t try too hard to get to sleep don39t look at the clock and calculate how much sleep you aren39t getting 4 Keep on a regular schedule 5 Don t take sleeping pills or drink alcohol or other drugs that slow down the nervous system Sleep Apnea 0 Person stops breathing for 10 second or more 0 Snoring often associated Narcolepsy 0 quotsleep seizurequot Dreams Freud39s Interpretation Manifest content of a dream 0 The actual dream itself Latent content 0 True meaning of a dream is hidden and only expressed in symbols The activationsynthesis hypothesis A dream is merely another kind of thinking that occurs when people sleep Less realistic because it comes from within people39s memories and experiences rather than from the outside world Activationinformationmode model AIM o Newer version of activationsynthesis hypothesis 0 States that information accessed during waking hours can have an in uence on the synthesis of the dream What do people dream about Most people dream in color some people who grew up in the era of black andwhite television sometimes dream in blackandwhite The Effects of Hypnosis Hypnosis state of consciousness in which a person is especially susceptible to suggeonn Steps in hypnotic induction 1 The hypnotist tells the person to focus on what is being said 2 The person is told to relax and feel tired 3 The hypnotist tells the person to quotlet goquot and accept suggestions easily 4 The person is told to use vivid imagination What can hypnosis really do People cannot be hypnotized against their will Facts About Hypnosis Hypnosis Can Hypnosis Cannot Create amnesia for whatever happens Give peope superhuman strength during the hypnotic session at least for a brief time Relieve pain by allowing the person to Reliany enhance memory there39s an remove conscious attention from the increased risk of falsememory retrieval pain because of the suggestible state hypnosis creates Alter sensory perceptions smell Regress people back to childhood hearing vision time sense ability to see visua illusions Help peope relax in situations that Regress people to some quotpast lifequot normally would cause them stress such as ying on an airplane Theories of Hypnosis Hypnosis as dissociation the hidden observer 0 Ernest Hilgard believed that hypnosis worked only on the immediate conscious mind of a person while part of that person39s mind quothidden observerquot remained aware of all that was going on Hypnosis as social roleplaying the socialcognitive explanation o Assumes that people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state but are merely playing the role expected of them in the situation The In uence of Psychoactive Drugs Dependence Physical Dependence 0 Cause the user s body to crave the drug 0 Body becomes unable to function normally without the drug after use for some period of time 0 Sign of physical dependence A drug tolerance larger and larger doses of the drug are needed to achieve the same initial effects of the drug as use conUnues Withdrawal occurs when deprived of the drug 0 Symptoms can range from headaches nausea and irritability to severe pain cramping shaking and dangerously elevated blood pressure Sensations occur because the body is trying to adjust to the absence of the drug Psychological dependence 0 The belief that the drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological wellbeing 0 Some drugs include stimulants drugs that increase nervous system functioning depressants drugs that decreased the nervous system functioning and hallucinogenic drugs that alter perceptions may cause hallucinations Stimulants Amphetamines 0 Made in a laboratory 0 Sometimes used to treat attentiondeficithyperactivity disorder or narcolepsy Cause the sympathetic nervous system to go into overdrive Depress the appetite use up energy reserves Build a drug tolerance Amphetamine psychosis may include nausea vomiting high blood pressure and strokes Cocaine o A natural drug found in coca plant leaves 0000 o Produces feelings of euphoria energy power and pleasure o Deadens pain suppresses the appetite 0 May cause convulsions 0 Users will experience severe irritability while going through withdrawal Nicotine o Produces a slight quotrushquot or sense of arousal as it raises blood pressure and accelerates the heart 0 provides a rush of sugar into the bloodstream by stimulating the release of adrenalin and raising dopamine levels 0 has a relaxing effect caffeine 0 natural substance found in coffee beans tea leaves cocoa nuts and at least 60 other types of plants 0 mild stimulant o helps maintain alertness can increase the effectiveness of some pain relievers Depressants Major tranquilizers o Barbiturates Drugs that have a sedative sleepinducing effect Minor tranquilizers o Benzodiazepines Drugs used to lower anxiety and reduce stress Alcohol 0 Chemical resulting from fermentation or distillation of various kinds of vegetable matter 0 Health risks to the heart liver and brain 0 Alcohol is associated with the loss of work time loss of a job and loss of economic stability Narcotics o Suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous system39s natural receptor sites for endorphins Opium Made from opium poppy Highly addictive Morphine Dissolving opium in acid then neutralizing the acid with ammonia Controls severe pain Heroin Derivative of morphine without the disagreeable effects of morphine Methadone buprenorphine and naltrexone may be used to control withdrawal symptoms and treat opiate addictions Hallucinogens cause the brain to alter its interpretation of sensations can produce sensory distortions very similar to synesthesia Manufactured highs developed in the laboratory 0 LSD lysergic acid diethylamide Synthesized from a grain fungus One of the most potent hallucinogens Dif cult understanding what is and isn39t reality Used in veterinary medicine as a tranquilizer Can be a hallucinogen stimulant depressant or painkiller depending on dosage Causes user to feel no warning signal of pain 0 MDMA Ecstasy Causes the release of large amounts of serotonin and blocks the reuptake of serotonin User feels euphoria energized may feel increased emotional warmth toward others May damage serotonin receptors leading to depression Cause severe dehydration and raises body temperature Nonmanufactured high 0 Marijuana Comes from the leaves and owers of the hemp plant Contains psychoactive cannabinoid THC Produce a feeling of wellbeing mild intoxication mild sensory distortions or hallucinations
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