Chapter 5- Learning
Chapter 5- Learning PSY0010
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Blades on Friday March 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY0010 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Lausberg in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 03/20/15
Introduction to Psychology Chapter 5 Learning Learning any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice Relatively permanent when people learn anything some part of the brain is physically changed to record what they ve learned process of memory Classical Conditioning lvan Pavlov 18491936 Russian physiologist o Re ex unlearned involuntary response that is not under personal control or choice 0 Stimulus any object event or experience that causes a response Response is the reaction of an organism 0 Classical conditioning learning to elicit an involuntary re exlike response to a stimulus other than the original natural stimulus that normally produces thee response 0 Elements of classical conditioning a Unconditioned stimulus original naturally occurring stimulus also known as UCS b Unconditioned response automatic involuntary response to the unconditioned stimulus UCR c Conditioned stimulus repeated pairing with the unconditioned stimulus begins to cause the same kind of involuntary response learning has occurred a Neutral stimulus becomes conditioned stimulus d Conditioned response not often as strong as the original unconditioned response Pavlov s Canine Clat a tmmw Heuriral htlrruius l39i Salimlsm 3913 th l t HEIuICJH 39IIIII39EIiu gD Hr Ii39liIEIIJ I ll quoti39ill39 llli39l HI ilr llliriuilil HIEMii i WEE HashMinna p93 39a I uaurl Ill2 ilfu 39ul 39EJgi iir i lamqu l Ce l 39 w39lirq CI39I39li1i i391l il Eill Mllei ifje39lIquota rlil lquotl39irlil Fin12133 Ile rn1lil HII39IHII39E 9TH ulliyal Ilr Formulated basic principles for conditioning 1 CS must come before the UCS 2 CS and UCS must come very close together in time a Ideally no more than 5 seconds apart 3 Neural stimulus must be paired with UCS several times before conditioning can take place 4 CS is usually some stimulus that is distinctive from their competing stimuli Stimulus Generalization tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus Stimulus Discrimination occurs when an organism learns to respond to different stimuli in different ways Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery Extinction process that causes the conditioned response to quotdieoutquot when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus Spontaneous Recovery conditioned response can brie y reappear when the conditioned stimulus returns 0 Response is usually weak and shortlived Higher Order Conditioning Metrnsnirne u1 LICH sailiia linri Kantianruling Metr nmse 513 Fl isalitra tiara U3 failmil WEEFHUWE fiZEi CH immigration lHiQI Er C513 CE iaaliwtipr l lionitalitiuning Conditioned Emotional Responses Conditioned emotional response phobias association of an emotion and an object CER Vicarious conditioning classically conditioning by watching someone else respond to a stimulus Operant Conditioning learning that applies to voluntary behavior Law of effect 0 If an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence it will tend to be repeated 0 If an action is followed by an unpleasurable consequence it will tend not to be repeated Reinforcement quotwhat39s in it for mequot 0 Anything that when following a response causes that response to be more likely happen again 0 Typically a pleasurable consequence Primary and Secondary Reinforcers Reinforcers itemsevents that when following a response will strengthen it 1 Primary reinforcer a Food liquid or touch satisfying hunger thirst or sex drive b Removal of pain 2 Secondary reinforcer a Associated with past primary reinforcers b Money the secondary reinforcer can be used to get candytreats primary reinforcer i Money becomes reinforcing in and of itself Comparing Two Kinds of Conditioning OPERANT CONDITIONING CLASSICAL CONDITIONING End result is an increase in the rate of End result is the creation of a new an already occurring response response to stimulus that didn39t originally produce that response Responses are voluntary Responses are involuntary Consequences are important in forming Antecedent stimuli important in forming an association association Reinforcement immediate CS must occur immediately before the UCS An expectancy develops for Expectancy develops for UCS to follow reinforcement to follow a correct CS response Positive and Negative Reinforcement Positive reinforcement following a response by the addition or experience of a pleasurable consequence 0 Le reward or pat on the back Negative reinforcement following a response with the removalescape from something unpleasant increases the likelihood of that response being repeated 0 Le removal of pain Schedules of Reinforcement TIMING OF REINFORCEMENT CAN MAKE ATREMENDOUS DIFFERENCE IN THE SPEED AT WHICH LEARNING OCCURS AND THE STRENGTH OF THE LEARNED RESPONSE The Partial Reinforcement Effect Partial reinforcement effect response that is reinforced after some but not all correct responses more resistant to extinction o More prevalent in real life Continuous reinforcement reinforcer for each and every correct response lnterval schedue when the timing of the response is more important Ration schedue when the number of responses is more important Fixed ratio schedue same in each case Variable ratio schedue different numberinterval of time for each case Fixed lnterval Schedule of Reinforcement The Role of Punishment in Operant Conditioning Four Ways to Modify Behavior Reinforcement Punishment Positive adding Something valued or Something unpleasant desirable Positive Reinforcement Example getting a gold star for good behavior in school Punishment by Application Example getting a spanking for disobeying NegaUve removingavoiding Something valued or desirable Something unpleasant Punishment by Removal Example losing a privilege such as going out with friends Negative Reinforcement Example fastening a seat belt to stop the alarm from sounding Two Kinds of Punishment 1 Punishment by application occurs when something unpleasant is added to the situation or applied 2 Punishment by removal behavior is punished by the removal of something pleasurable or desired after the behavior occurs NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT STRENGTHENS RESPONSE PUNISHMENT WEAKENS A RESPONSE How to Make Punishment Effective 1 Punishment should immediately follow the behavior it is meant to punish 2 Punishment should be consistent a If told a certain behavior will result in a certain punishment follow through b Punishment for a particular behavior should stay at the same intensity or increase slightly never decrease 3 Punishment of the wrong behavior should be paired whenever possible with reinforcement of the right behavior a Teaches the desired behavior while suppressing the undesired behavior Stimulus Control Discriminative stimulus any stimulus that provides an organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement 0 Speci c cues lead to speci c responses discriminating between cues leads to success Shaping and Other Concepts in Operant Conditioning Shaping small steps toward some ultimate goal are reinforced until the goal itself is reached 0 Successive approximation small steps one after the other that gets closer and closer to the goal Applied behavior analysis ABA modern term for a form of behavior modi cation that uses both analysis of current behavior and behavioral techniques to address a socially relevant issue Skills broken down to simplest steps then taught to the child through a system of reinforcement Biofeedback using feedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary responses such as blood pressure and relaxation under voluntary control Neurofeedback form of biofeedback using brainscanning devices to provide feedback about brain activity in an effort to modify behavior Cognitive Learning Theory Latent learning the idea that learning could happen without reinforcement and then later affect behavior Insight sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problem allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly 0 Cannot be gained through trialanderror learning alone Learned helplessness the tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past Observational Learning the learning of new behavior through watching the actions of a model Sometimes the behavior is desirable sometimes it is not Bandura and the Bobo Doll 1 Experiment one model interacted with the toys in a nonaggressive manner in front of the child ignoring the bobo doll a When left alone the child did not act aggressively with the doll 2 Experiment two model interacted aggressively with the bobo doll in the presence of the child kicking yelling throwing it in the air hitting a When left alone the child acted aggressively with the doll Learningperformance distinction learning can take place without actual performance Four Elements of Observational Learning 1 Attention a To learn anything through observation the learner must pay attention to the model 2 Memory a The learner must be able to retain the memory of what was done 3 Imitation a The learner must be capable of reproductionimitating the actions of the model 4 Desire a The learner must have the desire or motivation to perform the action
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