Week 10 notes
Week 10 notes HIST 2340W
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Date Created: 03/20/15
Week 10 Chinese Civil War Con ict between Mao Zedong from CCP communist party of China and Iiang IieshiGMD nationalistic party 0 Nationalistic vs Communist party The Dixie Mission 19441947 0 American diplomats who worked with Chinese communist in Vienna 0 They were charmed by the Chinese communist overall thought that they had a good and solid plan for China 0 USA wanted a compromise between the nationalistic and the communists in order to establish American in uence over Asia and peace in the region Early American views of the CCP 0 Appointment of Patrick Hurley 1944 I American diplomat in China I Inward hostility towards the communist and favored the nationalistic I Wanted to mediate between parties America s basic policy to Asia 0 Integrate capitalism in Asia like in the Bretton Woods and in Alta the Conference 0 Old elites has been discredited encouraged new orders 0 Roosevelt believed China was the great ally in Asia they will eventually stabilize economically and become the greatest power in Asia Goals of Mao o Unify china under communist rule 0 Reverse China s Century of humiliation at the hands of imperialist powers I In the past they were humiliated by the Great Powers opium wars 0 Spread revolution throughout Asia with China as leader I Spread communist revolution throughout Asia Marshall s Mission 0 Initiated by Truman in December 1945 0 Goal is to bring about reconciliation between GMS and CCP and form united government similar to Greece I Leaders are too weak and cannot get compromise I Solution is to empower minority leaders and support the liberal groups by empowering a new leadership I Build a new liberal government around them that will be favorable to the USA 0 January 1946quot both sides agree to ceasefire 0 Spring 1946 Soviet withdrawal from Manchuria and con ict between CCP and GMD forces to aggravate Occupation of Japan Phase I O O Demilitarization I Article IX I Dissolution of the Zaibatsu Destroying Iapanese weapons I New constitution with Emphasis on individuals rights Responsible for Japanese aggression I Xinto religion and the military to use it as a weapon to create aggressiveness between Japanese people I Japanese culture of following the leaderquot I Militarists who took advantage of Japanese culture to turn the country into a war machine I Threat of the use of war as means of promoting demilitarization of Japan I Re educating Iapanese brain change their ideas and culture and show American examples replacing traditional ideas with new ideas of democracy equality civil rights and liberty The US and the triumph of the CCP O O 0 Consider what kind of relation should they seek Peigjin campaign November 1948 January 1949 CPP conquers Northern china Iohn Leighton Stuart and Accommodation I Give them chance to American give some relationship with the Chinese communist I Ultimate create a Communist party who maintain communication with USA I There were people who had clear distinctions between China and USSR and believed in healthy negotiations with the communist party of China were possible and recommended Iohn Knowland and argument against recognition I USA could not say with any credibility if it allows communist only in China I Did not want to make USA look hypocritical I USA should not be subjective to Communist China Ongoing belief that PRC would eventually be recognized USA continued to support Chiang Kaishec and eventually USA chose not to engage in any sort of negotiations with the CCP 19499 CCP takes over and Nationalists ed to Taiwan I Mao proclaims Communist Party of china Recognized John and there were two school of thoughts about how the USA will best behave over China The Reverse Course 0 O NSC 132 occupation will not end until Japan is militarily secure I And economy was recovered Stimulation of Japan s Economy through restoration of foreign trade o Helped conservatives especially Yoshida Shigeru to gain power I Suppress the left They launched a new police training program in Japan to prevent the instability of the Japanese government I Emphasis of security and stability over democracy Iapan rather than China needed to be the hub of capitalism in Asia Responsible for reconfiguration of USA s role in Asia Readings Senator William Knowland Argues Against Recognitionquot 1950 0 Every communist country is a threat China should not be an exception and USA should take a stand towards their communist ideologies o Argues that the spread of communism could take over Asia and that it threatened the peace of the world 0 Urged USA not to appease and not recognize the communist regime in China it would be anti democratic in his views and a threat to the American international stance as much as a hypocrite one US Ambassador Iohn Leighton Stuart Reports Mao s Overture 1949 o Stated his symbolic purpose of staying in China even though the USA clearly did not support the communist regime in China but did not want to cause international turmoil in removing American embassy in the region 0 Ambassador did not support Chinese military scale and worried about American safety in the region and cooperation is only possible if certain treaties were followed Also worried about their alliance with USSR and the possible negative effects that could lead relations with the USA 0 Talks about Hua Chinese foreign minister from CCP of China who invited USA ambassador to participate in a university ceremony in Peiping through Mao s orders 0 USA ambassador claims that will be consulting with the American government and worries that his appearance in the ceremony will signify communist acceptance in the American perspective yet he leaves it for the USA government to decide General Marshall January 7 19479 American Views on the situation in China 0 Solution to communist rule in China is to aid with money the minority parties who have liberal ideas China in order for them to establish a more democratic government like his plan in Greece Turkey and the rest of Europe I This plan will unify China in the right liberal direction 0 Mentions that Chinese people distrust the nationalistic leader and that if they aid the proper sort of leadership China will not fall to communism He blamed their internal con ict in the lack of leadership of the country The myth of America s Lost Chancequot in China 0 Historians who argue that Chinese and USA could maintain relations believed in 2 things I China and USSR relation were not strong or friendly so they were not allies per say I And that the Chinese government sought USA recognition they also argue that USAChina hostile relationship is because of American lack of recognition but there is evidence to support otherwise o BUT this view is proved disproved given specific documents since they proved that Mao was squeezing outquot capitalists from Chinese liberal zone 0 To recognize the communist regime would mean to be hypocrite towards American goals in China for a century and advise that Mao had resentment towards western unequal treatment of China and by making them equal will give out the wrong message of acceptance to a type of government USA did not agree 0 USA relations with China worsened once China relations to the USSR intensified in 1949 since it was a constant threat to democracy 0 Stalin advised Mao to accept American relations so they would stop aiding the nationalistic party in Taiwan and that they could benefit from capitalist economy at certain cirmcustances but MAO disagreed and wanted to end any relationship with democrats 0 Overall Mao sought to regain Chinese honor and dominant status that was taken by the western powers during the 18 and 19 centuries It was more historically and culturally related rather than an economic sense China condemned USA imperialistic behavior Korean War Impact of Japanese in Colonialism 0 Japan tries to change Korea economically suppresses labor and impose their own culture in there 0 Efforts to eradicate Korean Culture force out Korean language from schools Korea at liberation o Divisions between left and right I Plans made by USA and USSR to divide and occupy Korea at the 38th parallel 0 Committee for preparation Korean Independence and YoUnhyong I CPKI set out in provinces throughout the country called people s committees I Nation wide nation s assembly called people s assembly I Nationalization of Korean s industries o KPR and KDP Korean democratic power shameful histories of Japanese colonialism 0 USA wanted to control Japan to establish their in uence in Asia Soviet occupation of the North 0 Kim 11 Sunk and the north Korean revolution I Carry out reform programs American occupation of the South 0 Set up military government and allowed some reforms but they were more limited and USA realized that they couldn t govern Korea with just the democratic party needed somebody who was conservative and had personal hatred towards communism o Syngman Rhee first leader of south Korea I Leader of Korean Independence movement I Conservative views I United Nations committee on Korea I Tried to lobby USA on behalf of North Korea independence US response to the DPRK invasion 0 Defense perimeter speech 0 Belief in South Korea as a Test Case 0 CIA analysis War a product of Moscow s expansionism I Triumph of Chinese revolution made Stalin feel much more confident and that they were going to move throughout Asia I Gives North Koreans another potential ally I Americans help create the first constitution of the SK 1948 19509 start to look at SK as a country that the USA cannot abandon they realize that the south Korea s government has many aws I Thought that support for SK would lose international prestige it is about the soviet union and the belief that they are the natural force behind it 9expand communism to Asia fear that the USA has to take its commitments seriously their invasion was understood as threat to the free world that USA wanted to create so they decided to take action against the invasion June 25th 1950 NK invades SK 0 There has been a resistance to Syngman Rhee s government from the left 0 They lose their hope that there is going to be a uprising for Korean unification China Enters the Korean War 0 Mao s idea of glorious victory o Loyalty towards Korean communists o Truman administration desire to stop China from gaining prestige 0 War becomes stalemated in the 38th parallel
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