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Dr. Greene: Unit 4 Notes

by: Rachel Ferrell

Dr. Greene: Unit 4 Notes NTRI 2000-002

Rachel Ferrell
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Covers chapters 7 and 10 completely. This will make up 50% of final exam
Nutrition and Health
Michael Winand Greene
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Ferrell on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000-002 at Auburn University taught by Michael Winand Greene in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 04/27/16
Rachel  Ferrell   NTRI  2000     Unit  4  Notes     Chapter  10:  Fitness   • Close  relationship  between  nutrition  and  physical  fitness   o Peak  performance→needs  diet  with  all  nutrients   • Physical  activity  =  any  movement  of  muscles     o Requires  energy   • Exercise=  specific,  physical  activity  that  is  planned,  repetitive,  and  to  improve  physical  fitness   • Benefits  of  physical  activity→outweighs  risks  for  most  Americans   2008  Physical  Activity  Guidelines  for  America:   • Adults   o 150  min/week→moderate  intensity   o 75  min/week→  vigorous  intensity  or  aerobic  physical  activity   o or  a  combo  of  these  two   o episodes  of  at  least  10  min  spread  throughout  the  week     o the  more  →the  beter     o Muscle  strengthening  activities:   § Major  muscles  groups  2  more  days  a  week   o 80%  of  Americans  fail  to  achieve  levels  of  physical  activities  set  in  these  guidelines   Types  of  Activities:   • Anaerobic=  without  oxygen   • Aerobic=  with  oxygen   • Moderate  Intensity   o Increases  heart  rate/  breathing  rate  5-­‐6  on  RPE  scale   o Brisk  walk,  dancing,  swimming,  biking   • Vigorous  Intensity   o Aerobic,  greatly  increases  heart/breathing  rate  (7-­‐8  on  RPE  scale)   o Running,  tennis  swimming   • Muscle  Strengthening   o Activity  that  increases  skeletal  muscle  strength,  power,  endurance,  and  mass   o Ex.  strength  training,  resistance  training,  endurance,  etc.   o Strength=  max.  force  muscle  exerts  against  load  at  one  time   o Endurance=  repeated  use  of  muscles  before  you  become  tired   o Power=  combo  of  strength/speed;  explosive  movements  like  jumping,  throwing     Flexibilty:   • Increases  balance/stability  →  reducing  risk  of  falls/injury     • =ability  to  move  a  joint  through  full  range  of  motion     • poor  flexibility→  can  lead  to  chronic  lower  back  pain   Intensity  Level:   • Heart  Rate   o Estimated  max=  220-­‐  age   o Rate  of  Perceived  Exertion  Rate  (RPE)  Scale   § Scale  of  1-­‐10  on  what  you  consider  your  max  heart  rate   Energy  for  Muscle:   • ATP=  chemical  energy     o Generated  from  carbs,  fat,  protein   o Used  by  cells  for  muscle  contractions   o Only  small  amount  stored  in  resting  cells   o 2-­‐4  seconds  worth  of  work  stored   o other  sources  of  energy  are  needed   • Ways  to  generate  ATP:   o Phosphocreatine  (PCr)   § Anaerobic     § High  energy  compound   § Formed/stored  in  muscle  cells   § PCr  +  ADP→  Cr  +  ATP   § Activated  instantly     § Quickly  restores  ATP   § Sustains  ATP  for  1  min  or  less   o Anaerobic  Glycolysis   § No  oxygen;  from  intense  physical  activity   § 2  ATP  per  glucose  →  very  ineffective   § replenishes  ATP  quickly     § BUT  cannot  sustain  ATP  production   § 30  sec-­‐  2min  of  work   § generates  lactate  buildup   • changes  acidity  that  inhibits  glycolytic  enzymes   o Aerobic  Glycolysis   § Oxygen     § Low  to  moderate  intensity  (jogging)   § 28-­‐30  ATP  per  glucose   § ATP  replenished  slower;  BUT  it  is  sustainable   § 2-­‐3  min  work   Fuel  Mixture     • use→depends  on  intensity/  duration  of  exercise     • high  intensity   o sprinting,  weight  lifting,  (30  sec-­‐2min)     o oxygen  is  limited     o primarily  use  carb  (glucose)  as  substance/energy  source   o Glucose→  2  pyruvate→  Lactic  Acid   § Anaerobic  process   § Gain  net  2  ATP   § Liver  can  later  convert  lactic  acid  to  glucose   • Low  intensity     o Enough  oxygen   o Oxygen  used  by  mitochondria→produces  ATP  from  the  pyruvate   o Can  also  use  fat  and  protein  (to  a  minor  extent)  to  produce  ATP   o At  this  pace,  can  supply  energy  for  hours   • Resting   o More  than  half  of  energy  comes  from  fat   o The  rest  comes  from  glucose   o A  small  amount  comes  from  amino  acids   Metabolism  of  Fat  for  Fuel:   • Fat=  majority  of  stored  food  in  body   • Triglyceride=  >3  fatty  acids  +  1  glycerol     • Fatty  acid  converted  to  ATP  in  mitochondria  of  muscle  cells     • Can  generate  108  ATP  for  each  16  Carbon  fatty  acid  chain   • Trained  Muscles   o Have  more  mitochondria   o Have  greater  ability  to  use  fat  as  fuel   • Prolonged  Exercise   o Fat  becomes  main  fuel  source   • Intense  Exercise:   o Fat  is  not  major  source  of  energy   o Requires  more  oxygen→  anaerobic   Protein:  Minor  Source  of  Fuel:   • If  amino  acids  are  used→most  likely  will  be  branched  chain  amino  acids   • During  rest  and  low/moderate  exercise   o <5%  of  energy  needs   • During  endurance  exercises   o 10-­‐15%  energy  needs   • Resistance  exercise   o Very  little  protein  used   • Average  U.S.  diet→  consumes  plenty  of  protein   o Therefore  supplements  are  NOT  needed   Dietary  Advice  for  Athletes:   • Performance  depends  on   o Training   o Genetic  makeup   o Diet   • Poor  diet→  can  hinder  performance   • Carbs:   o Need  to  maintain  liver/glycogen  stores   o Before  exercise  of  90-­‐120  min   § 1-­‐2  hours  before  event,  consume  low  glycemic  foods   o During  exercise   § Carbs  can  help  improve  performance   o After  exercise:   § Restore  glycogen  levels  by  eating  carbs   o Carb  Loading:   § Beneficial  for  athletes  with  prolonged  exercise  routines   § Week  before  event:   • Taper  down  exercise   • Taper  up  on  carb  diet   § Potential  problem=  water  added  along  wth  glycogen   § Can  get  similar  benefits  from  consuming  carbs  during  the  competition   • Protein:   o Recommended=  1.0-­‐1.6kg   o Problem  with  high  protein  diet   § Can  increase  Ca  in  urine   § Increased  urine  production   § Potential  for  kidney  stores   § If  protein  takes  place  of  carbs,  it  could  lead  to  early  fatigue   • Vitamins/Minerals   o About    the  same  for  athletes  and  non-­‐athletes     o Need  for  antioxidants  may  be  greater  (Vitamin  C/E)   o Calcium   § Can  be  lost  through  sweat     § Especially  important  for  female  athletes   § Female  athletes  with  weird  periods→  at  higher  risk  for  decreased  Ca  and  bone   fractures   o Iron:   § Women  tend  to  have  lower  iron   § Distance  runners  at  risk→  high  pressure  running  can  break  RBC  and  cause  GI   bleeding     § Sports  anemia=  increased  blood  volume;  temporary  and  shouldn’t  affect   performance   • Fluids   o Should  lose  no  more  than  2%  body  weight  during  san  exercise     o 2.5-­‐3  cups  of  water  should  be  consumes  for  every  pound  lost  during  exercise   • Glycogen/  Glycogen  Storage   o Muscle  glycogen→  only  used  by  that  muscle  it  is  stored  in   o Liver  glycogen→  released  into  bloodstream;  used  by  all  cells   o During  low  /moderate  intensity  exercise   § Glycogen  stores  can  sustain  work  for  up  to  2  hours   o Glycogen  Depletion:   § “Hitting  the  Wall”  =  depleted  muscle  glycogen   § “Bonking”=  depleted  liver  glycogen   • Sports  Drinks   o If  <  60  min  exercise→Primary  concern  is  to  replenish  water   o If    >60  min  exercise  →  need  to  replenish  electrolytes   § Also  need  electrolytes  if  excessive  sweating   • Energy  Bars   o Good  ones  have  carbs/protein  or  both   o Recommended  amounts   § 40g  carbs   § <10g  protein   § <4g  fat   § <5g  fiber   Chapter  7:     Determination  of  Energy  Expenditure:   • Direct  Calorimetry=  measures  heat  produced  by  the  body   • Indirect  Calorimetry=  measures  oxygen  consumed  and  carbon  dioxide  expired   o Easier  to  measure   o Related  to  what  type/how  much  nutrients  are  being  sued  for  energy   Body  Fat:   • Varies  widely  (2-­‐70%  of  body  weight)   • Desirable  amount     o Men:  8-­‐24%   o Women:  21-­‐35%   • Distribution  of  where  fat  is  distributed  in  body  does  matter   o Fat  found  in  different  areas  or  depots  in  the  body   • Methods  for  measuring  body  fat:   o Water  weighing=  gold  standard   o Air  Displacement  (Bod  Pod)   o Bioelectrical  Impedance   o Dual  Energy  X-­‐Ray  absorptiometry  (DEXA)   o Skinfold  thickness       Nature  vs.  Nurture:   • =  genetics  vs.  environment   • if  one  parent  is  obese→50%  chance  that  their  children  will  also  be  obese   • If  both  parents  obese→80%  chance  that  their  children  will  also  be  obese   • Study:  Twins  in  different  environment   o Both  had  same  amount  of  body  fat  and  distribution  of  body  fat  has  a  strong  genetic   component   o 70%  genetics   o 30%  environment   • Evolutionary  component?   o Interactions  between  genes  (Thrifty  genes)  and  environment   o Thrifty  gene  Hypothesis   § Population  of  humans→  been  through  periods  of  feast  and  faine   § Natural  selection→  favors  those  carrying  “thrifty  alleles”     § These  genes  promote  storage  of  fat  and  energy   o Environmental  Hypothesis   § Genetic  susceptibility  to  obesity  is  not  equal  across  ethnic  groups   § Selection  factors:  climate,  thermoregulation  abilities,  survival  advantage  to  living  in   wild   § Cold  adaptation→  causes  increased  metabolic  rate   § Hot  adaptation→  causes  decreased  metabolic  rate   • Nurture/Environment  affect   o Body  similarities  with  families→  could  be  due  to  learned  behaviors   o Also  same  with  similarities  between  couples   o Socioeconomic  status  affects  %  of  obesity,  especially  in  females   Role  of  Leptin  in  Body  Fat:   • Fat  produces  hormone  called  leptin  that  decreases  food  intake  and  increases  energy  expenditure   • Leptin  is  secreted  in  proportion  to  the  amount  of  body  fat   • Leptin=  feedback  mechanism  informing  brain  of  how  much  fat  is  in  body   • Most  Obese  people→  high  levels  of  leptin  from  high  levels  of  fat   o But  since  leptin  is  supposed  to  block  food  intake→  it  is  not  working  as  it  should   o This  is  leptin  resistance   Other  Hormones  Regulating  Food  Intake   • Ghrelin   o Hormone  from  stomach  that  stimulates  hunger   o High  during  fasting  and  low  after  eating   Weigh  Control   • Why  should  you  be  concerned?   • A  healthy  weight  is  associated  with   o 1.)  Longevity   o 2.)  Higher  quality  of  life   o 3.)  Medical  costs   • Weight  classifications   o Underweight   o Normal   o Overweight   o Obese   o Extreme  obesity   • Methods  to  Asses  obesity   o BMI  (Body  Mass  Index)   § Based  on  weight  and  height  standard   § Most  closely  related  to  body  fat  content   § Body  weight(kg)  /  height  (meters)   § Body  Weight  (lbs)  X  703/height (in)   § Is  BMI  the  best  way  to  assess  obesity?   § Easy  to  calculate  and  does  a  good  job  at  comparing  populations   o Waist  circumference   § Works  for  individuals  and  populations   • Health  Problems  associated  with  obesity   o Cardiovascular  disease  and  stroke     o Cancers→  colon,  breast,  prostate,  ovarian,  pancreatic,  liver   o Type  2  Diabetes   o Hypertension   o Gall  bladder  disease   o Sleep  apnea   o Osteoarthritis   • Obesity     o 2/3  of  Americans  are  overweight  or  obese   o The  increase  in  percentage  of  overweight/obese  has  occurred  fairly  recently   § Suggests  that  it  is  environment  of  lifestyle  that  is  cause   o “Cure”  for  being  overweight?   § Change  in  lifestyle?  Or  medications?   Energy  Balance:   • Energy  in  =  energy  out   • If  energy  in  >  energy  out:   o Positive  energy  balance   o Body  weight/fat  will  increase   o Required  for  pregnancy,  infancy,  childhood   • If  energy  in  <  energy  out:   o Negative  energy  balance   o Body  weight  will  decrease  (not  just  fat,  but  also  lean  mass)   o Fat  tissue  (3500  cal/lb)   o A  weight  loss  of  1  lb  per  week,  requires  a  deficit  of  500  cal/day   o However→  not  that  simple   § Not  a  linear  relationship  between  calories  and  weight  loss   • Energy  In   o =  calories  consumed  (actually  calories  metabolized)   o calories  in  a  food  →  determined  by  bomb  calorimeter   • Energy  Out   o =  energy  expenditure   o Basal  Metabolic  Rate  (BMR)   § Minimal  amount  of  calories  expended  in  a  fasting  state   § Energy  that  it  takes  to  be  alive   § 60-­‐70%  of  total  energy  expenditure   § 1.0  kcal/kg/hr  for  men;  0.9kcal/kg/hr  for  women  (estimate)   § BMR  →hard  to  measure  experimentally,  so  we  measure  the  resting  metabolic  rate   (RMR)   § Factors  that  increase  a  persons  BMR   • More  lean  body  mass   • Larger  body  surface  area   • Being  male→more  lean  body  mass   • Body  temperature   • Thyroid  hormones   • Pregnancy   • Caffeine  and  tobacco  use   § Factors  that  decrease  a  persons  BMR   • Extreme  diet→low  calorie  intake     o Shift  in  conversion   o Basal  Metabolism  (10-­‐20%  decrease)   • Aging     o Change  in  lean  body  mass   o 1-­‐2%  decrease  per  10  years  past  age  30   o Physical  Activity   § Increases  energy  expenditure  above  basal  energy  needs   § 25-­‐40%  of  total  energy  expenditure   § Not  exercise  per  se  (walking  around,  normal  activities,  etc.)   § Decrease  in  physical  activity  is  related  to  todays  obesity  problem   o Thermic  effect  of  food   § When  you  digest,  absorb,  transport,  metabolize,  and  store  nutrients→all  takes   energy   § Think  of  it  as  energy  tax  on  foods  you  consume   § Also  called  diet-­‐induced  thermogenesis  (DIT)   § 5-­‐10%  of  total  energy  expenditure   o Thermogenesis   § =  non  voluntary  physical  activity  triggered  by  cold   § but  also→  fidgeting,  maintenance  of  muscle  tone  and  body  posture   § energy  expenditure  related  to  these  activities   § very  small  compared  to  other  factors  affecting  energy  expenditure   § Tissue  that  plays  an  important  role   • Brown  adipose  tissue→high  in  mitochondria   Treatment  of  Overweight/  Obesity   • Should  be  long  term  lifestyle  change   • Weight  Loss  plan   o 1.)  control  of  caloric  intake   o 2.)  Increase  physical  activity   o 3.)  Lifestyle  changes  (not  easy)   Popular  Diet  Approach  Concerns:   • Moderate  Calorie  Restriction   o Concern=  need  acceptable  vitamin/mineral  supplementation   • Low  Carb  Diet   o Concern=  lack  of  fiber→  can  lead  to  ketosis,  reduced  exercise  capacity,  excessive  fat  intake   can  lead  to  GI  problems  and  health  concerns  of  over  consumption  of  saturated  fats   • Low  Fat  Diet   o Concern=  too  much  fiber  intake,  poor  mineral  absorption,  increased  sugar/salt   • Novelty  Diet   o Not  balanced;  hard  to  due  long  term;  unrealistic  food  choices  that  lead  to  binging   Professional  Help  Losing  Weight:   • Medications   o FDA  approved  criteria   o Weight  loss  of  at  least  >5%  a  year  (placebo  adjusted)   o OR  >5%  weight  loss  by  35%  of  patients   o Problems→poor  safety  and  efficacy   Treatment  of  Severe  Obesity:   • BMI  >  40  or  2x  healthy  weight   • 1.)  very  low  carb  diet   o 400-­‐800  cal  per  day   • 2.)  Bariatric  Surgery   o very  effective   Treatment  of  Underweight   • BMI  <  18.5   • Numerous  causes   o Cancer,  disease,  excessive  dieting/exercise,  genetic  background   • Health  problems   o Possible  loss  of  menstrual  cycle   o Low  bone  mass   Mediterranean  Diet:   • Life  expectancy  very  high  in  this  region   • Many  variants  of  the  diet→  depends  on  exact  region/country  and  how  close  they  are  to  actual  sea   • Not  exactly  one  diet   • Not  just  one  food  that  contributes  to  the  health  benefits  of  the  diet→  it’s  the  lifestyle   Important  Nutrients  in  Mediterranean  Diet   • Olive  Oil   o Classified  on  breakdown  of  triglycerides   o Extra  Virgin  Olive  Oil=  <8%  free  acidity   § Measured  as  oleic  acid   § Produced  by  mechanical  means  without  use  of  solvents   § Under  temps  that  will  not  degrade  oil  (<86  degrees  F)   § Good  for  consumption  of  monounsaturated  fats   § Contains  Tocopherols  and  phenolic  compounds  (powerful  antioxidants)   o Virgin  Olive  Oil=    free  acidity  of  <3  grams   o Refined  Olive  Oil=  flavorless/  odorless   § Fatty  acid  content  is  unchanged   Landmark  Mediterranean  Diet  Studies:   • Seven  Countries  Study   o Observational  (no  actual  experiment)   o Prospective  cohort  study   o Cross  cultural   o Led  by  Ancel  Keys   § Observed  that  many  Americans  die  from  heart  disease  while  few  in  Naples  do   o 16  cohorts  from  7  countries  (US.  Finland,  Yugoslavia,  Japan,  Netherlands,  Italy,  Greece)   § Contrasts  in  lifestyle,  eating  habit,  risk  factor  levels   § Various  incidences  of  cardiovascular  diseases   o Measurements   § Background  info  (lifestyle,  medical  history,  etc.)   § Physical  Exam  (blood  pressure,  heart  function,  etc.)   § Lab  Tests  (Serum  liquids)   § Dietary  Data  (chemical  analysis  of  food  they  were  consuming)   o Followed  participants  for  5-­‐40  years   o Results   § Risk  factors  for  CVD=  serum  lipids  (cholesterols),  high  blood  pressure   § Gave  insight  on  healthy  diets   § Lifestyle  risk  factors=  physical  activity,  smoking     o Results  for  healthy  aging   § Healthy  eating  pattern=  less  mortality   § Good  Mental  Health  =  less  cognitive  decline   § Increases  prolonged  physical  functioning   o Problems  with  study   § Only  studied  men   § Observational,  cant  control  all  aspects  of  lifestyle   • The  PREIMED  Study   o Experimental  study   o Clinical  trial   o Parallel  group,  multicenter,  single  blind,  randomized  trial   Why  such  an  interest  in  Mediterranean  Diet?   • Health  benefits   o Reduced  risk  of  CVD,  diabetes,  Alzheimer’s,  cancer   § Because  of  better  metabolic  health   o Healthy  aging     • Food  is  tasty   • Food  is  fresh   Blue  Zones   • =  places  where  many  people  live  way  longer  and  healthier  lives  (100+  years  old)   • lessons  to  learn  from  these  populations   o move  naturally   § doesn’t  take  serious  physical  exertion,  just  being  active  daily   o purpose  for  day/life   o downshift  pace  of  life→manage  stress  better   o only  eat  until  80%  full   o eat  more  plants  (****  most  important  one)   o sense  of  community   Community  Health   • Finland→  had  highest  rates  of  CVD  in  the  world   • With  community/government  effort   o Very  successful  in  changing  lifestyles   o CVD  rate  went  extremely  low            


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