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World Civilizations Notes from April 18 through April 22-Caroligian Empire and on

by: Simone Edwards

World Civilizations Notes from April 18 through April 22-Caroligian Empire and on 1010

Marketplace > University of Tennessee - Chattanooga > History > 1010 > World Civilizations Notes from April 18 through April 22 Caroligian Empire and on
Simone Edwards
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The notes begin with Caroligian Empire and move onto Muhammad and the nation of Islam.
World Civilizations l: World History from the Origins to c. 1000
Kira Robison
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Simone Edwards on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1010 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Kira Robison in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations l: World History from the Origins to c. 1000 in History at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.


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Date Created: 04/27/16
World Civilizations Notes from April 18-22 Carolingian Empire -influx of people into Rome---fall of Rome -Zantium -Power of the Franks -story of centralization and fragmentation Rise of Carolingian Empire -Merovingian kings (ca. 680) -Divided kingdom (because every son inherits a part) -Clovis -son of Meroving -brings all divided parts together under his rule -first Frankish king that we know of that converted to Christianity -still some fragmentation (r. 481-511) to Decentralized power (multiple territories; sons of the kings; major nobles owning land) -Major Domus (Mayor of the House) -he becomes the most powerful guy next to the king -eventually more powerful because of king subdividing -Charles Martel "the Hammer" (r. 714-741) (most famous Major Domus) -inherited Austrasia and Neustria (from father) -battle of Tour-Poitiers-732 (push Muslims back southwest-ish in Aquitaine(southern France) -sets border for Muslims -reunites all of the fragmented and lost territories -king of the Franks dies in 437 but no one notices because Charles Martel is the de-facto king until he dies and his son takes over and takes the crown of the Franks Charlemagne (Charles the Great): -Warfare -Lombards, 774 -Spanish Marches, 778 (Muslims--moved them out of the way) -Eastern Europe, beg. 787 (enforce Pagan conversion to Christianity) -in these battles, he takes over -Diplomacy -Jerusalem (makes a small Christian colony here) -fulfill religious pilgrimage -makes peace with people that hold the majority of the Middle East -Centralized Govt. -Royal household -In Aachen -Web of Admin that moves out throughout his territory -live in the palace and had people report to them from out in territories -capitularies-booklets -common laws for the entirety of Charlemagne's empire; everything is written down (who they talk to, problems they encounter; etc.) -missi dominici (team of two guys; 1 who can read/write) -they travel throughout the empire with the common law books and you never know when they will show up to enforce the rules -Christmas day in 800--Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor -becomes centerpiece of ideals of Ancient Rome within western Europe -connects him to the church; becomes a symbol of power, united, and attached to the church -Irene--her son was Roman Emperor, mad that her son was usurped, sends endless letters to Charlemagne and pope--where do you get off? -Alliance with papacy Carolingian Renaissance -What does Renaissance mean? Rebirth -What is evidence? -Expansion and peace -Charles Martel to Louis the Pious -"Holy Roman Empire" -Conscious association with Classical Rome -As "Christendom" (a kingdom of Christians) -Court association with intellectuals -Charlemagne's education -"Church" Latin Liberal Arts -Seven Liberal Arts -grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, astronomy -Lay and clerical -palace school, cathedral schools, monastic schools -access and opportunity -Manuscript books and production -the scriptorium -Carolingian minuscule *yay!* (handwriting style) Early Arabia -population -Waterways -Trade routes (most famous is Mecca; central location) -religion -Polytheism -Ka'ba (now the center shrine of the Islamic faith; shrine for all deities; brings "religious" tourism) -hanifs (they worship one god but it's not a god that has been passed down to us or known) -Mecca (center of trade and center of pilgrimage) -Quraysh (most powerful merchant tribe in Mecca; have good control over trading caravans) under Hashim (strong and economically talented; tells his kids that they have to prove that they deserve their inheritance; sons begin to compete economically to inherit Hashim's control and power) -Muhammad (ca. 570-632 C.E.) -Great-grandson of Hashim (his ancestors didn't do well in Hashim's contest and they were very poor) -Bedouin childhood (grew up and was nourished with a Bedouin family instead of his own because his real fam was too poor) -Women in his family -Amina (mom) -Khadija (1st wife) -Sawda, Aisha (2 most famous wives) -Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum, and Fatima (daughters; out of daughters come first male Muslims; known as Mothers of Islam?) -At 40, ca. 610, the revelation (al-Qur'an); the text isn't in chronological order--organized by size, the first revelation is #96) -Islam: "submission" to God -Muslim: one who submits -goes to Mecca where it's polytheistic and is claiming that there's only 1 god causing a stir and more people are converting -his uncle dies and he's depressed but he kind of gets back into it in 619 C.E. -Hijra (Hegira) (move from Mecca to Medina) -622 C.E. (Year 1 A.H.) Birth of Islamic Civilization -Muhammad vs. -Mecca (post-Hijra) -Battle of Badr (2/624) -Trade caravans (his former family's caravan; the Muslims took it over) -Jews of Medina (unwilling to convert; we don't have to, we were here first, give us reasons to convert) -Bedouins -Hajj to Mecca, 6 A.H. (return to Mecca; with his battles, they can basically just walk in) Elements of Islamic religion -Sunnah (Traditions based on Muhammed's life; written down during Hajj; path of the prophet; exemplary behavior) -Hadith (sayings; body of Muhammed's sayings and other important people like his wives and daughters) -Shari'a (laws and constitutions directly from Quran) -Jihad (misused in modern context; simply a struggle against anything) -Ka'ba -Ummah Expansion of Islam 5 pillars of Islam: -Shahada: declaration of faith -Salah- daily worship (5) -Sawm- fasting during daylight of holy month of Ramadan -Hajj-pilgramiage to Mecca (1) -Zakat-almsgiving -Hagia Sophia -Arabic becomes a core piece of art in Islam -there's no images of the divine in Islam -Problems of Succession: -Muhammad died 11 A.H./ 632 C.E. -Do we need a religious leader or political leader? -Next caliph--leads army, enforces rules, etc. Ali or Abu Bakr? -Split between Sunni and Shi'a start immediately after M's death -The Rashidun Era -The Age of the "Rightly-Guided Caliphs" -11-40 (632-661) -Abu Bakr, (11-13/632-634) father in law -The Riddah Wars (expansion of Islam and conquest of rest of radian peninsula) -begins social class that those who converted first are better than those who converted last -Syria -Umar (13-23/634-644) -Syria -Iraq -Uthman (23-35/644-656) -Iran -Egypt -Ali, (35-40/656-661) m. Fatima (youngest daughter) -vs. Muawiya (general; refuses to acknowledge Ali's power; leads to conflict) -37/657, Battle of Siffin -Ali agrees to mediating the conflict and he ended up with Egypt while Muawiya takes everything else -Umayyad Dynasty -Muawiya (40/ 661-680) -Abbasid Caliphate -Umayyad Dynasty -Founded by Muawiya (40-59/661-680) -moved capital to Damascus -Vs. Abbasids -Coalition of power -Legitimacy through Abbas -Conquest of Damascus, 129/750 -Abbasid Caliphate (golden age of Arabia literature; Aladdin, Arabian Knights, etc.) -capital to Baghdad -Umayyads in Spain -Abd al-Rahman (he fled) Life under Islam -Convert or don't -can remain and accept dhimmi status, a particular social status, or leave -dhimmis are the people of the books, Christians, Jews, etc. -Taxes -Zakat (for Muslims); jizya (for dhimmi) -dhimmi aren't allowed to serve in the military -Pact of Umar; dhimmi pact/contract


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