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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Turk on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUS-22111-009 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Michael Lee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see The Understand of Music in Music at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
MIDDLE AGES ● also called the medival period ● early middle ages (to 1000) ○ fall of Roman empire ○ growth of Christianity (Roman Catholic Church) ○ feudal society = clergy, nobility, and peasant classes ○ illiterate except clergy (monks - monasteries, nuns - convents) ○ “patronage” = support and employment for music by the church ○ art style = symbolic, impersonal, iconic ● refers to an era between the enlightened civilizations of ancient Greece and the Renaissance ● after the fall of the Roman Empire, the rule of law ceased to exist and the period was dominated by the conflicts of war lords over possessions and property, with very little commerce and no contact between the east and the west ● the art style lacked emotion or expression Gregorian Chant ● plainchant, plainsong ● 1st written music ● texture: monophonic (choral with no accompaniment) ● rhythm = nonmetric ● responsorial (soloist, then chorus) ● harmony = church modes ○ modal ● latin text = syllabic, neumatic, and melismatic ● gregorian chant is named after Pope Gregory who began the process of collecting traditional melodies Text Settings For Chants ● syllabic = one note for each word or syllable ○ ex. Handel, Hallelujah chorus from Messiah ● neumatic = 2-4 notes per syllable ○ ex. higher range of middle section = Hildegard, Alleluia ● melismatic = many notes per syllable ○ ex. opening of Hildegard, Alleluia Hildegard of Bingen ● german (holy roman empire) ● founded her own convent ● scholar = writings on science, medicine, religion, philosophy, poetry, and music ● considered a saint ● was the first female granted permission by the pope to write and teach theology Notre Dame Organum ● cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris ● first polyphonic music ○ non-imitative ○ the development of precise rhythm and pitch notation ● often based on pre-existing chants (“cantus firmus”) ● 2-part music by Leonin, 3rd and 4th parts by Perotin ● responsible for further refinements in developing pitch and rhythm notation ● melody = short, repeated ideas exchanged b/w upper voices ● rhythm and meter = simple pattern of long-short-long-short in upper voices over slow moving bottom voice (tenor) ● 3-part polyphony, alternating with monophonic chant = texture ● a cappella ● continues in neuromatic setting ● ends with a simple monophonic chant melody Late Middle Ages ● feudal society ending ● modern nation/states developing ○ France, England ● opening of east and west (trade, cultural exchange) ● crusades ● cities and first universities (centers of art and culture) ● rising influence of royal courts ○ 2nd source of patronage Secular Music ● Ars Nova = (new art) music style first in France, then Italy ● minstrels (troubadours) ● secular dance-instrumental, improvised, instruments not specified ● secular songs (chanson) = settings of poetry , may be monophonic or polyphonic ● music for ceremonies, celebrations, and entertainment ● Dante’s Divine Comedy ● Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales ● architecture moved from the Romanesque style to Gothic cathedrals Mauchaut ● French ● employed by church and royal courts ● composed “Notre Dame Mass” ● 1st complete polyphonic setting of ordinary mass ● sacred music and secular songs (chanson) ○ french for “song” ● melody = conjunct, low range, wavelike lines ● rhythm = slow triple meter with subtle syncopation ● texture = 3 part polyphony ● form = 2 sections A & B ● 3 male voices
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