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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Turk on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR-23511-009 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Tanya Falcone in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Science of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
Carbs ● an organic compound made up of one or more sugar molecule ● simple carbs ○ monosaccharide = single sugar molecule ○ disaccharide = two sugar molecules Monosaccharides ● hexose = monosaccharides made of 6 carbon atoms ● glucose = the most abundant sugar in blood ○ produced by plants through photosynthesis… from carbon dioxide and water ○ plants use glucose to form large, complex carbs ○ provides cells with energy ○ preferred energy source for the nervous system and the sole energy source for red blood cells ● fructose = most abundant sugar in fruits and vegetables ● galactose= found in dairy products ○ few foods contain galactose in its free state ○ makes certain components of cell membranes and to synthesize lactose, an important sugar in breast milk ○ converted to glucose and used as an energy source ● most of the fructose we consume comes from high fructose corn syrup Disaccharides ● lactose = glucose and galactose ● maltose = glucose and glucose ● sucrose = fructose and glucose ● glycosidic bond = type of chemical bond that forms between two monosaccharides ● on food labels, the term “sugar” refers to both added sugar and those that occur naturally ● the average American consumes about 89 grams of added sugar every day ○ almost half of the added sugars in the American diet are from soft drinks ● complex carbs = many monosaccharides bonded together ● the body stores small amounts of glucose as glycogen ○ majority is found in liver and skeletal muscles ○ can be broken down quickly when energy is needed… glucose can be released directly into the bond ● humans are unable to digest fiber ○ contains bonds that are resistant to digestive enzymes ● dietary fiber = from plants ● functional fiber = added to food as an ingredient
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