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by: Amy Turk
Amy Turk

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Notes for Exam 2
Science of Nutrition
Dr. Tanya Falcone
Class Notes
protein, nutrition, health, dietary, diet, amino acids, RDA, Fiber, fat, Skeletal, Muscles, tissues, collagen, organs, Heart, Liver, kidneys, RBC, Hemoglobin, Hormones, insulin, Energy, Enzymes, immunoproteins, phagocytes, antibodies, nitrogen, sickle-cell, anemia, vegetarian, pesce, lacto-ovo, lacto, vegan, methionine, Schizophrenia, tryptophan, melotonin, eosinophilia-myalgia, syndrome, 5-HT, melatonin, serotonin, CHO, marasmus, kwashiorkor, Kidney, stones, cancer, disease, Obesity
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Turk on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR-23511-009 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Tanya Falcone in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Science of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Kent State University.

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Date Created: 04/27/16
PROTEIN ● chemical substance in foods made up of chains of amino acids ● essential amino acids ● nonessential amino acids ● proteins are involved in every biological process in the body ● very important ● RDA ○ 20% of daily intake ○ average: 15% ● high protein foods are usually associated with high fat and low-fiber intakes ● foods high in protein are usually low in fiber ○ meat ○ cheese ○ milk ○ eggs ○ fish ○ nuts ○ some exceptions ■ beans ■ lentils Functions ● serves as structural material in the skeletal muscles, connective tissues (skin, collagen, cartilage), organs (heart, liver, kidneys), RBC and hemoglobin, hair, fingernails ● serves as basic components of enzymes, hormones, and other biologically important chemicals ○ hormones ■ insulin ● maintains and repairs protein-containing tissues ○ due to illness or injury ● serves as an energy source Where Do We Find Proteins In Our Body? ● half the protein is located in the muscle ● rest is in… ○ skin ○ collagen ○ blood ○ enzymes ○ immunoproteins ■ phagocytes and antibodies that help in the functioning of the immune system ● organs ○ heart, liver, kidney, GI Phagocytes and Antibodies ● phagocytes = engulfs and absorbs foreign bodies and harmful organisms in the blood ● antibodies = attack foreign proteins Functions of Proteins ● no storage form in the body ● contains nitrogen ● when broken down into amino acids, the nitrogen is released, used to make non-essential AAs ○ whatever is left over is excreted into the urine ● nitrogen binds to water in order to be excreted ○ high protein intake = high water intake ● AAs are missing their nitrogen and if not utilized by the body is converted to glucose or fat to be used as energy Amino Acids ● 9 essential ● 11 non essential ● all are essential and required to build and maintain protein tissues ● every protein in the body has a unique combination of amino acids linked together ● the unique combinations are orchestrated by DNA ○ genetic material directs protein synthesis ● Sickle-cell anemia = when the body produces a different amino acid sequence of hemoglobin ● the specific sequence and number of AAs will determine whether the protein is an enzyme, a component of RBC, muscle fiber, or others ● essential AAs ○ need to be provided by the body ● non essential AAs ○ made by the body ● you can find essential and non-essential AAs in foods Quality of Proteins ● complete protein ○ proteins that contain all of the essential amino acids in amounts needed to support growth and tissue maintenance ● incomplete protein ○ proteins that are deficient in one or more essential amino acids Vegetarian Diets ● diets containing only plant foods ○ may be lacking in complete proteins ● key to success… ○ eating a variety of foods and complementary sources of protein ● rice and beans ● tofu and rice ● peanut butter and whole grain bread ● hummus and pita ● vegetarian = an individual who excludes some or all animal based products or beverages ● based on… ○ health concerns ○ ethical issues ○ personal preferences ○ religious or cultural preferences ● pesce-vegetarian ○ excludes: all meat and poultry ○ includes: fish, dairy, eggs ● lacto-ovo vegetarian ○ excludes: all meats, poultry, and fish ○ includes: dairy and eggs ● lacto vegetarian ○ excludes: all meat, dairy, poultry, and fish (sometimes gelatin) ○ includes: dairy ● vegan ○ excludes: all meats, poultry, fish and their byproducts, and honey ○ often times will refrain from wearing anything made from wool or leather ○ includes: beans, lentils, fruits, vegetables Protein Alternatives ● most are incomplete proteins ● beans ● lentils ● nut butters ● soy products (complete) ○ tofu ○ soy milk ○ imitation meat ● cheese ○ soy based ○ soy and dairy free ● whole grains = some proteins ● nuts/seeds Complementary Proteins ● beans and rice ● peanut butter and whole grain bread ● hummus and pita ● to be eaten within a 24 hour period Amino Acid Supplementation ● methionine ○ worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia ○ promote hardening of the arteries ○ impair fetal and infant development ● nausea ● vomiting ● bad breath ● constipation ● some amino acids and some levels are safe when under supervision ○ used in clinical instances Tryptophan and Melatonin Supplementation ● 1990 ○ Tryptophan supplementation banned ○ Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS) ■ fatal flu-like neurological condition ■ contaminants in some tryptophan supplements ● available with a prescription and on the web ● post ban ○ 5-HT and melatonin 5-HT & Melatonin ● 5-hydroxytryptophan ○ converted in the body to serotonin ■ chemical messenger that influences mood, sleep, appetite, anxiety, pain sensation ○ late night snack of tryptophan and CHO ■ usually warm milk ● melatonin ○ sleep trigger ○ helps with wakefulness ○ proven to help reset sleep clock in shift workers, pilots, jet-lagged travelers, and people with sleep disorders ● tryptophan foods ○ veal ○ ham ○ lamb ○ beef ○ turkey ○ crab ○ salmon ○ flounder ○ tuna ○ cashews ○ cottage cheese ○ skim milk ● tryptophan supplementation ○ banned in the US and other countries ● 5-HT and melatonin ○ sold in the US ● can AA supplements and protein powders build muscle? ○ no ○ healthy well balanced diet and strength training Protein-Energy Malnutrition ● deficiency in protein, energy or both ● most prevalent form of malnutrition ● acute vs. chronic ● examples ○ eating disorders ○ starvation ■ marasmus ■ kwashiorkor ● classifications ○ marasmus = severe deprivation or impaired absorption ○ kwashiorkor = inadequate intake of protein -- usually infections ○ mix of both Protein Recommendations ● up to 35% is safe ● high protein diets are generally high in fat ● 45% ○ high ○ potential health risks ○ nausea ○ weakness ○ diarrhea ● women = 46 g per day minimum ● men = 56 grams per day minimum ● average US intake = 60% of total diet ● the body can only absorb about 70 grams of protein at one time ● extremely high levels of protein intake can cause death within several weeks ○ weak bones ○ kidney stones ○ cancer ○ heart disease ○ obesity


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