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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Turk on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR-23511-009 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Tanya Falcone in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Science of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
PROTEIN ● chemical substance in foods made up of chains of amino acids ● essential amino acids ● nonessential amino acids ● proteins are involved in every biological process in the body ● very important ● RDA ○ 20% of daily intake ○ average: 15% ● high protein foods are usually associated with high fat and low-fiber intakes ● foods high in protein are usually low in fiber ○ meat ○ cheese ○ milk ○ eggs ○ fish ○ nuts ○ some exceptions ■ beans ■ lentils Functions ● serves as structural material in the skeletal muscles, connective tissues (skin, collagen, cartilage), organs (heart, liver, kidneys), RBC and hemoglobin, hair, fingernails ● serves as basic components of enzymes, hormones, and other biologically important chemicals ○ hormones ■ insulin ● maintains and repairs protein-containing tissues ○ due to illness or injury ● serves as an energy source Where Do We Find Proteins In Our Body? ● half the protein is located in the muscle ● rest is in… ○ skin ○ collagen ○ blood ○ enzymes ○ immunoproteins ■ phagocytes and antibodies that help in the functioning of the immune system ● organs ○ heart, liver, kidney, GI Phagocytes and Antibodies ● phagocytes = engulfs and absorbs foreign bodies and harmful organisms in the blood ● antibodies = attack foreign proteins Functions of Proteins ● no storage form in the body ● contains nitrogen ● when broken down into amino acids, the nitrogen is released, used to make non-essential AAs ○ whatever is left over is excreted into the urine ● nitrogen binds to water in order to be excreted ○ high protein intake = high water intake ● AAs are missing their nitrogen and if not utilized by the body is converted to glucose or fat to be used as energy Amino Acids ● 9 essential ● 11 non essential ● all are essential and required to build and maintain protein tissues ● every protein in the body has a unique combination of amino acids linked together ● the unique combinations are orchestrated by DNA ○ genetic material directs protein synthesis ● Sickle-cell anemia = when the body produces a different amino acid sequence of hemoglobin ● the specific sequence and number of AAs will determine whether the protein is an enzyme, a component of RBC, muscle fiber, or others ● essential AAs ○ need to be provided by the body ● non essential AAs ○ made by the body ● you can find essential and non-essential AAs in foods Quality of Proteins ● complete protein ○ proteins that contain all of the essential amino acids in amounts needed to support growth and tissue maintenance ● incomplete protein ○ proteins that are deficient in one or more essential amino acids Vegetarian Diets ● diets containing only plant foods ○ may be lacking in complete proteins ● key to success… ○ eating a variety of foods and complementary sources of protein ● rice and beans ● tofu and rice ● peanut butter and whole grain bread ● hummus and pita ● vegetarian = an individual who excludes some or all animal based products or beverages ● based on… ○ health concerns ○ ethical issues ○ personal preferences ○ religious or cultural preferences ● pesce-vegetarian ○ excludes: all meat and poultry ○ includes: fish, dairy, eggs ● lacto-ovo vegetarian ○ excludes: all meats, poultry, and fish ○ includes: dairy and eggs ● lacto vegetarian ○ excludes: all meat, dairy, poultry, and fish (sometimes gelatin) ○ includes: dairy ● vegan ○ excludes: all meats, poultry, fish and their byproducts, and honey ○ often times will refrain from wearing anything made from wool or leather ○ includes: beans, lentils, fruits, vegetables Protein Alternatives ● most are incomplete proteins ● beans ● lentils ● nut butters ● soy products (complete) ○ tofu ○ soy milk ○ imitation meat ● cheese ○ soy based ○ soy and dairy free ● whole grains = some proteins ● nuts/seeds Complementary Proteins ● beans and rice ● peanut butter and whole grain bread ● hummus and pita ● to be eaten within a 24 hour period Amino Acid Supplementation ● methionine ○ worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia ○ promote hardening of the arteries ○ impair fetal and infant development ● nausea ● vomiting ● bad breath ● constipation ● some amino acids and some levels are safe when under supervision ○ used in clinical instances Tryptophan and Melatonin Supplementation ● 1990 ○ Tryptophan supplementation banned ○ Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS) ■ fatal flu-like neurological condition ■ contaminants in some tryptophan supplements ● available with a prescription and on the web ● post ban ○ 5-HT and melatonin 5-HT & Melatonin ● 5-hydroxytryptophan ○ converted in the body to serotonin ■ chemical messenger that influences mood, sleep, appetite, anxiety, pain sensation ○ late night snack of tryptophan and CHO ■ usually warm milk ● melatonin ○ sleep trigger ○ helps with wakefulness ○ proven to help reset sleep clock in shift workers, pilots, jet-lagged travelers, and people with sleep disorders ● tryptophan foods ○ veal ○ ham ○ lamb ○ beef ○ turkey ○ crab ○ salmon ○ flounder ○ tuna ○ cashews ○ cottage cheese ○ skim milk ● tryptophan supplementation ○ banned in the US and other countries ● 5-HT and melatonin ○ sold in the US ● can AA supplements and protein powders build muscle? ○ no ○ healthy well balanced diet and strength training Protein-Energy Malnutrition ● deficiency in protein, energy or both ● most prevalent form of malnutrition ● acute vs. chronic ● examples ○ eating disorders ○ starvation ■ marasmus ■ kwashiorkor ● classifications ○ marasmus = severe deprivation or impaired absorption ○ kwashiorkor = inadequate intake of protein -- usually infections ○ mix of both Protein Recommendations ● up to 35% is safe ● high protein diets are generally high in fat ● 45% ○ high ○ potential health risks ○ nausea ○ weakness ○ diarrhea ● women = 46 g per day minimum ● men = 56 grams per day minimum ● average US intake = 60% of total diet ● the body can only absorb about 70 grams of protein at one time ● extremely high levels of protein intake can cause death within several weeks ○ weak bones ○ kidney stones ○ cancer ○ heart disease ○ obesity
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