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History 225 LECTURE Notes The Civil War 625,000-700,000 died between 1861-1865 American political system collapses, constitutional crisis over slavery creates civil war Benefits of industrial revolution (creates more high-powered canons and firearms) Democrats Claim: Intended to surround south with freedom Federal constitution gave them no authority to interfere with slavery where it currently existed Gave federal govt authority to restrict slavery’s growth in new territories o DC, military, west Favored abolition at state level Guaranteed federal protection of property o Property is identical- wagon, chair, person and status does not change wherever you take it and is still under ownership under whoever owns it Sectional Party; republican party Slavery’s survival depending on its expansion to new territories LINCOLN DID NOT BELIEVE IN BLACK RIGHTS OR DID NOT LIKE BLACK PEOPLE BUT DID NOT BELIEVE IN SLAVERY NOT A WAR FOR SLAVERY BUT TO KEEP THE UNION TOGETHER BUT IF NORTH WON ASSUMED EMANCIPATION Why did the Southern States Secede? South Carolina Secession Convention o Issue between liberty vs property rights Alexander Stephens and the Cornerstone Speech o Vice pres of confederacy o African Slavery is the cornerstone of the confederacy The proper status of the negro is identified as property o Claims Jefferson ideas were no longer applied to their society Slavery is a positive evil o Says US founded upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man and slavery is it’s natural and moral condition Mobilizing for War Southern Advantage: Defensive War o Hold out long enough for North to “tire out” and give up Conquering the North is not necessary o South will fight on own territory North has to invade the south which means the south is fighting on familiar terrain, friendly local population North will need an army 2x-3x larger than south Needs very long supply lines to supply troops with food and etc Southern Disadvantage: Slave Society o 40% of southern population is unable to participate in war o Largely rural population that has a smaller population base (all emigration is to north) o Plantation bias- limited factorial and industrial base to build weaponry o South has to implement a draft Strong, centralized, federal power 18-35 years old you are forced into 3 years of service unless you’re a slave holder “Rich mans war and a poor mans fight” o Lots of desertion from confederacy o Southern Economy is based from global trade of cotton Union blockades southern ports Civil war creates second industrial revolution o Railroads o Artillery o Food o Livestock Civil War as a War of Liberation Emancipation is a consequence of the war o Emancipation Proclamation done for military purposes o Run away slaves were contraband of war North takes run away slaves and use them for war instead of returning them Emancipation Proclamation o Invitation for slaves to run away and go to the North Political Significance of Black Soldiers Soldier vs drummer Social and Economic Significance of Emancipation March to the sea o Slaves following union troops (Sherman) o Emancipation=redistribution of land and resources Lincoln and Gettysburg o Chapter 16 The Transformation of the West -At the close of the civil war the frontier of continuous white settlement didn’t’ not extend far beyond the Mississippi To the west was a population of more than 250,000 Indians -1893, historian Frederik Turner lectured “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” Argued the western frontier the distinctive qualities of American culture were forged; individual freedom, political democracy, economic mobility The west acts as a “safety valve” The west is seen as a place of opportunity for those seeking to improve the condition of their life Portrayed the west as empty space before American settlement o West was exact opposite A Diverse Region -The political and economic incorporation of American West was part of a global process -Incorporation of the West required: Active intervention of the federal government o Acquired Indian land by War and Treaty Administered land sales Regulated territorial politics Distribution of land and money o To Farmers, Railroads, and Mining Companies -1900’s construction of federally financed irrigation systems and damns would open large areas to commercial farming West becomes known (not least to its own inhabitants) as a place o rugged individualism and sturdy independence -Without governmental assistance, the West could never have been settled and developed Farming on the Middle Border -Even while wars were being fought with the Indians in the west, settlement continued -More land came into cultivation in the 30 years after the Civil War than in the previous two and a half centuries of American History -Hundreds of thousands of people acquired land from the Homestead Act Even more purchased land from railroad companies and speculators -The most multicultural state in the Union was North Dakota -Difficulties farming in the west: Poisonous rattlesnakes Blizzards Droughts -Much of the burden fell on women in the West More investment in labor-saving machines that would bring in more money but not machines that would help women in the household -Men/Sons: devoted their labor to cash crops -Farm wives: cared for animals, grew crops for food, cooked, cleaned -Farm families suffered from loneliness and isolation (especially women) Husbands would leave weeks at a time to market their crops Bonanza Farms John Wesley Powell Explorer/Geologist Surveyed the Middle Border in the 1870s -Powell Warned that because of the regions arid land and limited rainfall, development there required a large scale or irrigation projects -The model of family farming envisioned by the Homestead Act of 1862 could not apply: “no single family could do all the work required on irrigated farms – only cooperative, communal farming could succeed -Bonanza farms covered thousands of acres and employed large numbers of agricultural wage workers -Family farms still dominated the trans-Mississippi west -Even small farmers became oriented to national and international markets Specializing in the production of single crops for sale in faraway places -Railroads brought factory made goods to rural people, replacing items previously produced in famers’ homes -Farmers became more and more increasingly dependent on loans to purchase land, machinery, and industrial products -Agriculture reflected how the international economy was becoming more integrated Economic depressions and expanding agricultural production pushed prices of farm products down Farmers suffered severe difficulties o Many migrated to cities within their countries or international migration of labor -Western Farming relied on giant agricultural enterprises Irrigation Chemicals Machinery -California’s giant fruit and vegetable farms were tilled by migrant laborers from China, Philippines, Japan, and Mexico Cowboy and the Corporate West -Golden age of the ‘cattle kingdom’ -enclosed cattle ranges made it difficult to graze cattle, two terrible winters destroyed millions of cattle Industry recuperated and was organized in large, enclosed ranches close to rail connections -Growth in California began in the 1880s Tourism Discovery of oil in LA in 1892 Lumber industry Western Mining Gold and Silver Rushes o Dakotas – 1876 o Idaho – 1883 o Alaska -Railroads reached New Mexico in 1870s -Courts only recognized Mexican-era land titles to individual plots of land Landholdings were made increasingly available for sale to newcomers -By 1880 ¾ of New Mexico’s sheep belonged to just 20 families More Hispanic residents went to work for the new mines and railroads Conflict of the Mormon Frontier -Mormons moved to the Great Salt Lake Valley in the 1840’s Wanted to be free of persecution they were confronted with in the east Envisioned Utah to be the foundation of a great Empire called Deseret Conflict with federal government and growing numbers of non- mormons moving west -Mormons attacked a wagon on non-mormons intending to settle in California Mountain Meadows Massacre o Death of all adults and older children on the train (over 100 people) -After the civil war conflict continued between Mormon families, who spread southwest -1880s Utah banned the practice of polygamy Subjugation of the Plains Indians -Most migration on the Oregon and California Trails efore the civil war encountered little hostility from Indians 1850s bloody conflict between the arm and the Plains tribes and continued for decades -1869 president Ulysses S Grant announced a new “peace policy” but warfare soon resumed Let Me Be A Free Man -1877 troops pursued the Nez Perce Indians on a 1700 mile chase Nez Perce were seeking escape in Canada o Surrendered and were moved to Oklahoma -in 1879 Nez Perce leader chief joseph, gave a speech in Washington condemning the policy of confining Indians to reservations Adopted language of freedom and equal rights before the law “treat all men alike” “give them the same law.. let me be a free man” unsuccessfully petitioned successive presidents for peoples rights to return to their beloved Oregon homeland -Little Bighorn 1876 june, famous indian victory -Events of Indian wars delayed only temporarily the onward march of white soldiers, settlers, and prospectors - History 225 DISCUSSION Notes Opposed to slavery, but their opposition to slavery are due to different ideas Douglass o Radical integrationist o Black people have the right to claim basic human rights Taper o Believes in order to live free you need basic material conditions and protection from the law o Emigrationist- black people cannot find freedom in the US Freedom can only be found outside of the boundaries of the US Turner o Armed Self-Defense o Crazy religious fanatic who hates the south o Prevents investigation Walker DISCUSSION Second wave feminism- period of feminist activity that began in the 1960s in the us that spread throughout the western world and beyond. The movement lasted through the early 1980s. Broadened the debate; sexuality, family, workplace, reproductive rights, de facto inequalities, and official legal inequalities First wave feminism- focused mainly on suffrage and overturning legal obstacles to gender equality (voting and property rights) History 225 LECTURE Notes The Bank War: Acid Tet of Jacksonian Democracy Second Bank of US as a Political Issue o Jackson and the Veto of the Bank Expansion of franchises and emergence of political parties Democratic party becomes vehicle for expressing emotions at evolving market economy o Many people began to argue that system of American capitalist market development favored few at expense of many World become struggle for democracy vs for aristocracy Whig party o Favored financing of markets through banking and institutions Class conflict at work in early 19 century period Jackson: First president to understand power of political parties Bank of US emerged as economic favoritism in the market economy o Many people felt like the bank was making decisions that deeply effected their economic lives, relationship to creditors, argued that bank was undemocratic institution o Bank operated free from democratic check from the people o Only way; congress has to recharter bank every 20 years Why does Jackson veto the bank? He believes the bank favors the rich o Their interests at the expense of everyone else’s o Everyone is entitled to the same equality Emergence of a new aristocracy that is able to position themselves in the government to be in favor of them Democrats support him Why is the veto of the bank the solution? What does Jackson hope to do? Hopes to “level the playing field”- make things more equal Removes this institution that the rich can take advantage of o Violates core American governing principles o “There are no necessary evils in government. Its evils exist only in its abuses. If it would confine itself to equal protection, and, as Heaven does its rains, shower its favors alike on the high and the low, the rich and the poor, it would be an unqualified blessing. In the act before me there seems to be a wide and unnecessary departure from these just principles.” Any act of government is wrong if it effects one person different than someone else Only legit act of government is if it effects everyone the same o Promoting equality before the law o Government only becomes evil if it favors one person over another Bank: Rich over poor Limits of Jacksonian Politics o Articulating class resentment but does not envision class politics o Laisse-Faire Jackson doesn’t reject capitalism, he favorites it Doesn’t imagine using instruments of government to even the balance of power between many and the few Sought liberty in limited government History 225 LECTURE Notes The Slave Society of the Old South “America’s original sin” North and South: An Impeding Crisis? Conflict was inevitable North and south were very different o North: Capitalist, free labor o South: Anticapitalist, slave labor -Shared Characteristics Both claimed heritage in the American Revolution Commitment to constitutional government o Neither the north or the south reject American revolutionary ideals nor see themselves as operating outside of constitutional law Loyalty to National Parties Universal White Manhood Suffrage o Increasingly moving in a democratic direction Evangelical Religion and Separation of Church and State Agrarian o Most people are farmers White Supremacy o Pro-abolition doesn’t mean imagining black equality o Northern-whites against slavery but not in favor of African American rights Part of an expanding, Integrated Market Capitalist Economy o South produces raw material of the world industrial revolution Raw cotton o Northern manufactures convert southern cotton into cotton textiles Dependent on slave labor in the south to produce raw materials Indirectly supporting using slavery Slavery is backbone of American Economy wealth -Differences Free labor and upward mobility o Simple concept of working hard, applying yourself, industrious, limited only by your own talent and own ambition. If you work today threes nothing that suggests you cannot own your own stuff tomorrow o Disintegrating idea due to market revolution o Advocates of free labor don’t support blacks but because slavery impedes free labor Slave Labor and Upward mobility o South: work hard enough to accumulate a slave o Slaves are a ticket to economic advancement Struggle to define West o Whether the west is free or slave o House divided against itself cannot stand- Abraham Lincoln o Who has authority to define whether west is slave or free territory History 225 LECTURE Notes How the Indians Lost Their Land (Focus Lecture) 1783-1830’s 1. American Indians and the Meaning of Independence -British protection under the Imperial System Indians gained some protection from British when they controlled Americas Indians side with British against Americans bc they wouldn’t benefit from their win on the Revolutionary War Gorilla Warfare- Indians were suppressed by American Soldiers Iroquois- Revolution became a struggle on how to maintain existence and hold onto their lands -Americans Retaliate for Allying with Britain Racialized fears, and contempt towards Indians for siding with Britain Justification that Indians are a barrier to expansions of American liberty -Treaty of 1783 Great Britain gives away land between Appalachian Mountains and Mississippi river Americans get the “right’ to that land, but the Indians living there actually OWN the land Rights of preemption, right to BUY the land Western Settlers want the US to attack and conquer the land inhabited by Indians o Western Settlers; most violent expression of Indian policy (want to kill Indians Want to take away rights of Indians through diplomatic reasoning not war -Western Settlers Desired quick transfer of land through conquest Federal gov’t could not afford continent-wide invasion -Eastern Speculators (look down upon pioneers; western settlers) Favored policy of transfer through purchase of Indian land rights Federal gov’t could not treaty purchase *Both understand Indians are inferior* -States cannot negotiate with Indians, have to wait for gov’t to purchase land States propose for land Gov’t buys land from Indians State gets rights from gov’t for land Indians had right to deny, but had offers they couldn’t refuse/ trapped Indians look to British for support (they traveled to Canada) -Battle of Fallen Timbers 1794 Troops vs Indians & British Allies o British and Indians defeated and pushed back North in Canada -Land policy emerged combined a little both 2. American Land Policies -Indians owned lands that the US had not purchased or acquired by treaty Indians possessed “right of soil” Fed gov’t had right of preemption Jefferson’s hope -Indian Resistance ‘The Prophets’ o Brothers o Believed that the Americans are tricky, are playing the Indians o Front to Indian rights o Indians have all rights to the soil and unite the Indians again rights o No individual Indian has the right to sell land o Attempt to unite all Indians Tippecanoe (Nov. 18111) o Refused to sign a treaty to allow Americans to survey the land o A part of the war of 1812 o Indians are doing well during this time period Indians in control of a lot of Michigan during this time o Defeat British at ft. Detroit British withdraw, American’s wipe out Indian claims in Michigan, Indiana, Illinois 3. Shift in American Policy from Ownership to Occupancy -Americans increasingly question Indians “right to soil” -Indians have never been farmers -Indians lived by the chase, nomadic hunters -Indian’s thus had a right of occupancy but not right of soil -Settlers wanted to cultivate land and utilize it since Indians did not Indians are not farmers but hunters Incapable in living in harmony with settlers o Resistance is rooted in distinct character of the Indian o Less frugal in enjoyment, and less industrious o Indians despise labor and leave work for women, childlike impulse, governed by passions, believe in superstition, no practical view of reality, no criminal code or punishment, live in a state of nature o If people come in contact with them they will die out o Indians block progress, only solution is to relocate them and move them to Oaklahoma -Consequences Landownership had long been linked to Agriculture in Western thinking 1. What are the problems that the young mothers confront? How do they describe their days? What do they most need? Days are long. Work filled. Very limited free time. They need assistance in balancing and completing all of their work along with spending quality time with their families and even to for their own personal selves. 2. Are they happy? Angry? Anxious? I wouldn’t say this woman is extremely, happy but she isn’t angry. She does seem anxious, having trouble keeping things in balance and is always worried about forgetting things and her work piling up. When things aren’t exactly how theyre supposed to be she feels anxious and out of control. 3. These women were probably between 19 and 23 years old in 1956 at the time of the interviews. They would have been born during the height of the Great Depression. They are thus children of the Depression. Do they live in a world freed from want and freed from fear? Have the sought and achieved economic security and found it in the abundance of a suburban home? At what cost? 4. According to Helen Gurley Brown, what is the key to the good life for American women? Quiet, private, personal aggression. Style. Brains (not brainy brains). Fashion. Cook well and have a job that suits you and interests you. 5. What vision of the good life for American women did the National Organization of Women (NOW)’s espouse in its statement of purpose? Liberal feminism. Rather than challenging the system, it asks for women’s full inclusion into the mainstream of society. Rather than being antagonistic to men, strives for a truly equal partnership Do you think Helen Gurley Brown would have endorsed it? What about the Young Mothers? 6. How does NOW define the problems confronting American women? 7. What are the "new social institutions" that NOW demands to meet the problems that American women confront? 8. In what ways does the NOW document assume that all women share a similar political condition? 9. In attacking Miss America, what is Robin Morgan attacking? How would Helen Gurley Brown have responded? What would Robin Morgan have thought of Helen Gurley Brown? 10. Would Shirley Chisholm have agreed with Robin Morgan’s claim that the Miss America Pageant was an institution of female oppression? Explain 11. Why does she assert that the concept of prejudice against women strikes most Americans as bizarre? 12. Why does Chisholm argue that the United States needs more women in politics? 13. How different are the second wave feminists (NOW, Robin Morgan, Shirley Chisholm) from the New Woman of the Jazz Age (June 2 Online Discussion Forum)? What do second-wave feminists want that the New Woman didn't have? History 225 LECTURE Notes The Political Crisis of the 1850’s (Why did the US crumble into a civil war?) Unable to resolve constitutional crisis over slavery Terms to know: Mexican War/ Mexican Cession Wilmot Proviso Compromise of 1850 Fugitive Slave Act Kansas-Nebraska Act Bleeding Kansas Free Labor Ideology Dred Scott Decision Election of 1860 Southern Secession The political significance of run away slaves “Every day level”- every day resistance by individual slaves to protect themselves from overexertion Run-aways assert their humanity Run-aways fuel abolition o Autobiographies intended for Generates conflict between general liberty and property White governors and legislatures argue over something created by slaves -Fugitive Slave Act (compromise of 1850) Federal law that provides for federal officials and gives federal agents authority to go into northern states to get slaves who have run away o Federal protection of slave property o Personal Liberty Vs Personal Property Does federal law protect liberty or property? challenges southern states reliance on states rights to defend slavery Republican Party and the Problem of slavery Not an abolitionist/emancipation party (but become one as civil war unfolds) Party for civil and political rights of blacks The politics of Expansion Would the south maintain its balance of power in the senate? Does congress have any authority over the territories and new states? Can federal government limit the future expansion of slavery? The Republican Critique of the South Violates core principles o Respect, virtue, self-sufficiency The Republicans and Slavery Preferred Gradual Abolition Administered by the States Constitution gave congress no authority to interfere with slavery Freedom was the natural right of man unless local positive law established slavery Freedom was natural, if not universal; slavery was local Proslavery Response Rights of property were absolute All property-whether a chair, cow, or person- was identical o Property is property no matter what state you travel to Federal government had a constitutional obligation to protect property Democrats portrayed Republican opposition to slavery as promoting racial equality Lincoln’s Response I protest against the counterfeit logic which concludes that, because I do not want a black woman for a slave I must necessarily want her as a wife o I don’t want her for either, I can just leave her alone o For white supremacy, against slavery In some respects, she is not my equal but in her natural right to eat the bread she earns with her own hands without asking leave of anyone else she is my equal o The blessings of liberty are for all History 225 LECTURE Notes Why the New Deal Matters The New Deal- expands power and authority of Federal government in order to promote and protect the social welfare of ordinary working Americans New deal and the Modern State New Deal as origin of Modern Liberalism Public programs can improve peoples lives and benefit the public good o Government programs, agencies Government land resources o Government has more access to resources than any other agency Government had expertise -Tyranny promoted by industrialization New forms of tyranny o Industrialists – economic royalists They control competition Prevent appropriate wages Manipulating stock market Manipulating economy to their benefit at industrious worker’s expense o New forms of tyranny bring new forms of understanding of freedom Key legislative achievements Social security act National labor relations act Public works act Fair labor standards act Pillars of Social Security State Collective Bargaining Progressive Taxing o Distributing wealth more fairly Publicly funded Social Services Economic planning Egalitarian impulse (equality) 1. Why does the news-clip begin with World War I? What obstacles did veterans face after World War I? 2. What is the format of this news clip? Compare the tone and vocabulary of newsman with the narrator from Missouri asking about the G.I. Bill. Why did the producers make them sound so different? 3. What was different in the United States in 1944 than in 1918? How did Congress and the President come across in this piece? 4. What does the news clip identify as the most important eligibility condition for the veterans’ benefits of the G.I. Bill? Who, do you think, might not have qualified? 5. What role did the draft board play in the readjustment of veterans? -Help them find jobs, education, money 6. How did the G.I. Bill provide economic security for veterans? -Report back to draft board, seeks job -Find jobs for GIs ; veterans employment representatives -Unemployment compensation- up to a year -Continuing education thru GI bill of rights; prove not over 25 when entered service or show that it was interrupted -registrars as veteran’s advisors for school 7. How did the news clip present the bureaucracy involved in administering the G.I. Bill? 8. How does the news clip present the promise of a home to the viewer? What does this say about who the G.I. Bill was geared for and who exactly received a Second Bill of Rights? 9. Revisit FDR's Economic Bill of Rights speech from class lecture on March 28. What historical document is he alluding to in the beginning? What rights did Roosevelt enumerate, and what connection did Roosevelt draw between economic and national security? 10. In what way does the G.I. Bill of Rights fulfill the vision of postwar security that FDR articulated in the Economic Bill of Rights speech? -Economic stability 11. How do the G.I. Bill pamphlets help veterans navigate the complexities postwar readjustment to civilian life and the complexities of federal bureaucracy? 12. How do the pamphlets portray the government and its agents? 13. What vision of postwar home life do the pamphlets, images, and Mr. Hook cartoon portray? 14. Why do you think the United States Congress failed to adopt the equivalent of a G.I. Bill for all Americans? 15. Did the G.I. Bill of Rights create a military welfare state? Why did the United States assign special privileges to veterans? 16. What impact did the G.I. Bill have on American gender relations? Race relations? DISCUSSION Notes GI Bill created to prevent post-war depression Subsidizing profits of veterans who are opening small businesses Price ceilings and floors Federal government intervention Government trying to help GIs; expectation that government is helpful Employment assistance Education Home loans Society of necessitous men Creates a world of political stability Governments role in securing stability way government is portrayed Helpful Positive Veterans received benefits- passed by conservative congress/liberal president “Not a handout” Worry about creating entitlement to GI History 225 DISCUSSION Notes Household- currently constituted Oppressive, needs to be abandoned o Women will continue to live lives where they are unfulfilled and imprisoned Household structure hasn’t changed o Household is source of women’s oppression Mother role is vital to society but carries no economic importance Maternal + working wives Women seen as inferior to men Women being compared to servants o Private servants Children raised to see the structure of the home Raising children should be social responsibility over societal Not truly liberated until no obstacles (politics, economy) Challenges patriarchy History 225 LECTURE Notes The Spread of Market Social Relationships -What does it mean to engage with people as buyer/sellers? -Genuine human relationships? -Challenges founding ideals -* Would the spread of market social relationships (buyers&sellers) perpetuate a republic of social harmony or a republic of social conflicts? * 1. The Ideal of Rural Self-Sufficiency -Property Ownership Thomas Jefferson’s “chosen people of God” Each head of the household owned property with dependents (father/family) Lived in comfort but not in luxury o Didn’t own more than needed to meet basic material needs -Meeting family needs -Family Labor Ideal women don’t want to embrace Livestock, farming When labor on farm becomes more difficult than a family can do- consult neighbors o Reciprocal Relationships with neighbors o Idea of living in harmony, neighborliness -Communal Ethic of Social Harmony Essence of a community of sharing and reciprocity -Aspired to Competency rather than Luxury (rural competency) -Limited Contact/Engagement with the Market Don’t sell much Only a few things individuals need from the market Only went to market if they couldn’t make it themselves or get from neighbors Didn’t aspire for surplus to sell to market and make money -Embraced Pre-Market Values of Rural Self-Sufficiency and independence that sustained virtue -Adult Children Aspired to Recreate these Social Relationships with the WEST 2. Market Revolution and the Law -Self-Sufficient Farmers Move WEST Set up own farms -Entrepreneurs Also Move WEST Looking for money and business enterprise/pursuing wealth Legislative actions to loosen credit relationships o Allows individuals to borrow money easier o Protects private profit seeking enterprises Creates need for lawyers, insurance, etc. Limited enterprise; a whole new series of jobs are created to backup entrepreneurial enterprises Enterprises Damage Farmer’s Property Farmers retaliate in court o Suing enterprises to court to reward Farmer’s efforts -Legal Revolution Juries have a democratic voice – mostly self-sufficient farmers o Juries are losing their voice Courts Rule in Favor of Business-Use of Property o Judge argues farmers have damage, but hasn’t damaged all farmers in region therefore his enterprise is bringing benefit to the region Economic development that serves the public interest o Agent of change, wealth creation Open range= can claim livestock/let livestock roam on open range o Legislature changes: anyone who owns livestock has to enclose them in a fence o Animals become domesticated Become more market oriented than self-sufficient -Consequences Uniform Legal Precedents Legal Burden shifts from Defendant to Plaintiff o Demonstrate damage Frees up Enterprise Entrepreneurs to assume Risk o Legal world is in favor of o Encourages more investment and creativity Market social relationships displace reciprocal social relationships o Contractual relationship o Increasing reliance on cash and money in order to participate rather than an exchange of favors Spreads Social Conflicts rather than Social harmony Anti-Democratic basis of early Economic Development o Capitalist Enterprise People are losing their voice in the courts o Right to vote- will that voice be any more significant o Rise of all-men suffrage DISCUSSION: LOWELL MILLS WERE AN EXPERIMENT -Why was there a surplus of jobless women? Many men were going west o Young women with no where to go, unemployed No longer “putting-out” system o Women working from their homes to finish goods and send back to factory Expansion of markets/Demand for products increase -Francis Cabot Lowell Employed young women o Women worked on a bell schedule, didn’t have free-will, worked long hours o Saturday they got out early o Traditional Americans didn’t like it Viewed ‘factory girls’ as slaves Corrupted social class (created a lower class) -Cult of true womanhood True women possessed four virtues o Piety o Purity o Submissiveness o Domesticity -Conflict between economic modernization and “the cult” -Voice of Industry on Lowell Girls: Life expectancy short Women couldn’t live normal lives if they returned home “Factory Girl” is enslaved Lower class/peasants -Lowell on his factory Experiment Vision for women who worked at the factory: o Providing opportunity for women o Thought labor was going to improve women keep women pure and educate them Wants virtuous women in a community, getting their work done, healthy industrious life o Make women more useful to society o History 225 DISCUSSION Notes Household- currently constituted Oppressive, needs to be abandoned o Women will continue to live lives where they are unfulfilled and imprisoned Household structure hasn’t changed o Household is source of women’s oppression Mother role is vital to society but carries no economic importance Maternal + working wives Women seen as inferior to men Women being compared to servants o Private servants Children raised to see the structure of the home Raising children should be social responsibility over societal Not truly liberated until no obstacles (politics, economy) Challenges patriarchy History 225 LECTURE Notes The Civil War 625,000-700,000 died between 1861-1865 American political system collapses, constitutional crisis over slavery creates civil war Benefits of industrial revolution (creates more high-powered canons and firearms) Democrats Claim: Intended to surround south with freedom Federal constitution gave them no authority to interfere with slavery where it currently existed Gave federal govt authority to restrict slavery’s growth in new territories o DC, military, west Favored abolition at state level Guaranteed federal protection of property o Property is identical- wagon, chair, person and status does not change wherever you take it and is still under ownership under whoever owns it Sectional Party; republican party Slavery’s survival depending on its expansion to new territories LINCOLN DID NOT BELIEVE IN BLACK RIGHTS OR DID NOT LIKE BLACK PEOPLE BUT DID NOT BELIEVE IN SLAVERY NOT A WAR FOR SLAVERY BUT TO KEEP THE UNION TOGETHER BUT IF NORTH WON ASSUMED EMANCIPATION Why did the Southern States Secede? South Carolina Secession Convention o Issue between liberty vs property rights Alexander Stephens and the Cornerstone Speech o Vice pres of confederacy o African Slavery is the cornerstone of the confederacy The proper status of the negro is identified as property o Claims Jefferson ideas were no longer applied to their society Slavery is a positive evil o Says US founded upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man and slavery is it’s natural and moral condition Mobilizing for War Southern Advantage: Defensive War o Hold out long enough for North to “tire out” and give up Conquering the North is not necessary o South will fight on own territory North has to invade the south which means the south is fighting on familiar terrain, friendly local population North will need an army 2x-3x larger than south Needs very long supply lines to supply troops with food and etc Southern Disadvantage: Slave Society o 40% of southern population is unable to participate in war o Largely rural population that has a smaller population base (all emigration is to north) o Plantation bias- limited factorial and industrial base to build weaponry o South has to implement a draft Strong, centralized, federal power 18-35 years old you are forced into 3 years of service unless you’re a slave holder “Rich mans war and a poor mans fight” o Lots of desertion from confederacy o Southern Economy is based from global trade of cotton Union blockades southern ports Civil war creates second industrial revolution o Railroads o Artillery o Food o Livestock Civil War as a War of Liberation Emancipation is a consequence of the war o Emancipation Proclamation done for military purposes o Run away slaves were contraband of war North takes run away slaves and use them for war instead of returning them Emancipation Proclamation o Invitation for slaves to run away and go to the North Political Significance of Black Soldiers Soldier vs drummer Social and Economic Significance of Emancipation March to the sea o Slaves following union troops (Sherman) o Emancipation=redistribution of land and resources Lincoln and Gettysburg o History 225 LECTURE Notes Second Industrial Revolution and the Transformation of Work Emerges from/consequence form Northern victory of the Civil War 1877-1900 Remarkable industrial growth Purchasing power increases Deflation o Not good for people who need loans (farmers, etc.) -By end of the 19 century the industrial capacity wad larger than Germany, France, England combined Greatest industrial power in the world -Hierarchical structure of modern business enterprise Bureaucratic Revolution of Managerial Capitalism Bureaucratization means efficiency o Impersonal – dehumanizing o Humanizing is inefficient Standardization o “watch the costs and profits will take care of themselves” Carnegie Wanted to reduce labor costs o Managers operate economy not market Anti-market Capitalism o Firms dislike market o Market is unpredictable, ruinous, expensive Visible Hand of the Manager replaces the Invisible Hand of the Market Managerial Hierarchy is self-sustaining Management becomes distinct from ownership Railroads as the Model Big Business Enterprise Pioneer of modern big business enterprise o Sheer size and Complexity Necessitated Bureaucratization o Push to Standardization Deals with complex organization and business over vast territory Railroad is the “bringer of development” History 225 LECTURE Notes Capitalism Triumphant, Capitalism in Crisis Reaction in National Politics Republican Ascendancy -Tendency to nominate people who come out of the business world Success in business prepares you to be an elected official Harding -Businessmen running the government Harding and Coolidge Retreat from Activist Presidency o Roosevelt and Wilson saw presidency superior to congress o Harding saw president has political agenda congress implements Nominated chiefly for loyalty to republicans and charisma o Coolidge Least president the country ever had Herbert Hoover Progressive era, progressive in the tradition of Theodore Roosevelt or Wilson Herbert Hoover inherits the Great Depression 3 Republican Presidents: Hoover o Activist progressive o Private business advocate and government cooperation for common good o Secretary of Commerce Coolidge o Aloof loner Harding o Schmoozer, socialite Business Triumphant -Base of New Era Prosperity Herbert Hoover and the Associational Deal How can government help manage the economy? Department of Commerce o Looks to American trade associations as model Reactive rather than Activist Consequences o Lobbying; organization designed to influence public policy o Political alienation o Enhancement of private power o Not a new form of democracy o Weakens people’s identification with political parties o Don’t care who’s in power Just want to be able to influence o Weakens localism o Lobby on behalf national industrial interests o Lobbyists organize power of industry o Weakens disorganized link from government to politics o Shows how important organization in government is to influence Consumer Society and Mass Advertising o Consumption becomes economic indicator of prosperity o Dedication to implementation on things to influence Americans to spend their money (unlike producing things for export like 19 th century) o US economy becomes consumer oriented (consumer society) o Advertising becomes very important Ads influence consumption Beneath Prosperity: Sources of the Impending Crisis Sick industries o Older industries; coal railroads textiles agriculture Over capitalized and losing market share High tariffs (harmed by) Coal: shrinking demand Cotton: shrinking demand; meager profit margins Railroads: over capitalization Agriculture: over capacity, over production; most damage, collapsing prices Farming was too efficient Worldwide o Cooperate Consolidation Business merges By end of 1920 corporations controlled American Industry Merges pushed by commerce department to create more efficiency o Business alignment that is unable to react creatively when depression hits o Consolidates power in handful of small few of companies Misdistribution of Wealth and Income Income equality Top .1% of American Families in 1929 aggregate income of bottom 42% 71% incomes under $2,500 o richest families 11million problem because wages of ordinary people are not expanding rapidly enough to buy everything American industry produces Durable goods degrease buying History 225 LECTURE Notes Freedom is not absolute. Freedom from Want, Freedom from Fear Annual Message to congress, Jan 6 1941 Roosevelt Four essential human freedoms: Freedom of speech and expression Freedom of worship Freedom from want o Economic understanding which will secure to every nation a healthy life for all inhabitants Freedom from fear o World wide reduction of armaments to such a point that no nation will be in a position to commit an aggressive physical action against their neighbor Insufficient to defend freedoms: not what is under threat -Freedom requires economic security Roosevelt redefining freedom to mean provision of economic security o Government must ensure through proper economic planning -Japan, Germany, Italy- new world of dictators Antithesis of the new world order of tyranny o Linking growth of tyranny with kind of tyranny Americans experiences back in the 70s Preserve world of peace, security, freedom -Right is everywhere in the world Vision of new world order not just in America o Emerging clash of visions of world order; universal rights of mankind Foreign policy; idealistic policy -Foreign powers have power to invade united states 40s,50s,60s -Protection at home tied to foreign policy Cannot disconnect foreign and domestic policy Way of demolishing isolationist sentiment -Economic bill of rights (January of 1944) Rights of citizenship regardless of class/station, race, or creed Vision connects individual freedom with economic security Dictatorship will destroy economic security -Economic Bill of Rights (Second Bill of Rights) The right to a useful and remunerative job in the industries or shops or farms or mines of the nation; The right to earn enough to provide adequate food and clothing and recreation; The right of every farmer to raise and sell his products at a return which will give him and his family a decent living; The right of every businessman, large and small, to trade in an atmosphere of freedom from unfair competition and domination by monopolies at home or abroad; The right of every family to a decent home; The right to adequate medical care and the opportunity to achieve and enjoy good health; The right to adequate protection from the economic fears of old age, sickness, accident, and unemployment; The right to a good education. -Rights to economic security; right to recreation Twilight of the New Deal Why new deal begins to collapse? Arguments supporting losing validity to voters Deindustrialization Steel, auto, ship, cotton textiles o Competition from foreign imports o White working class out of economic equation Unions collapse – unionization made difficult by republicans FDRs new deal- remembering the forgotten man o Individual who worked hard, American’s economy forgot New Forgotten Man Political Realignment – emergence of conservative revolution 1970s Challenged modern liberalism Republican party- national political party (7 of 10 pres elections) Conservative counterrevolution o Collapse of new deal consensus Collapse of new deal consensus New Deal Democratic Coalition o Coalition of voters who were consistent dem voters African Americans Democrats – work force safety laws, union laws White Southern Segregationists Rockefeller Republicans o Modern Republicans o New Deal Consensus Seldom wanted to expand new deal o Strengthen public education, housing opportunities, civil rights o Understood essential points of new deal Social security, collective bargaining, unemployment insurance, civil rights o Economic growth continues w/perpetuity o People need skills, opportunity in order to access American life (education, training) Signs of Fracture o Challenges fundamental assumptions about economic growth etc. o By end of 1970s, Americans trust in governing institutions eroded new deal Freedom now to Black Power Alienated whites Discussion March 14, 2016 Questions 1. What is Jacob Riis's view of poverty? Repulsive, degrading to society, a flaw 2. How do you think Riis wanted his readers to respond? Wanted them to agree with his opinions, sounded like he was searching for encouragement. 3. Compare Jacob Riis's descriptions of the Italians and Jews of New York City Describes Italians as ‘producers of poverty and chaos’, lowlevel human beings, states the Italian comes in at the bottom, Italians are content living in a pig-sty and break the law. Born as a gambler, implying irresponsibility and poverty. Don’t do much to improve their situations, lazy. Describes Jews having money as their god, little value of life and highly value their bank accounts, work their asses off for money- lowerst paid class anywhere. Describes ‘Jewtown’ as extremely poverty stricken, and that it is dirty and filled with disease. Jews have low intellectual statuses, ignorant. Try really hard to improve their situations and cannot. -with how Rocco Corresca and Sadie Frowne describe themselves. How do you account for the discrepancies? Frowne (jew), confident, hardworking, poor, optimistic, goes to school, committed. “pleasant and fine” in conversation. Corresca (Italian), had to beg for money that didn’t even go to him. Taken from home, used, abused- forced to sleep on the floor, eat bread- was beaten because he didn’t like to steal. 4. Was Jacob Riis an advocate of immigration? How can you tell? Not at all. His view of foreigners is negative. The way he describes the foreigners, Jews and Italians, is downright degrading and it seems as if he sees any foreigners as lesser than Americans. 5. Compare the image of urban, industrial America in How the Other Half Lives with that in the immigrant life histories of Corresca and Frowne. Which is the more accurate source? 6. How did George Washington Plunkitt maintain the loyalty of his constituents? He takes care of them, getting them out of jail, paying their fines, shaking their hands all day, attending their funerals. “He is always obliging. He will go to the police courts to put in a good word for the “drunks and disorderlies” or pay their fines, if a good word is not effective. He will attend christenings, weddings, and funerals. He will feed the hungry and help bury the dead.” 7. In serving the interests of Tammany Hall, did Plunkitt serve the public good? Yes and no. Yes- helping individuals out. No, after hes elected he wont be doing as much to keep the interests. 8. Would Corresca or Frowne consider Plunkitt an ally, as somebody who would look out for them? No, Plunkitt does everything out of political ambition rather than kindness. Plunkitt has his own hidden agenda. 9. Do you think that Plunkitt understood his immigrant working-class constituents? How does his view of the other half differ from that of Riis? Discussion Notes -Intentional phenomena of immigration 1850-1930 -1865-1920 Major immigration into the united states Progressive era 1890-1920 Italians, Russians, Jews, Astra-Hungarians Work in big corporations, exploited Big businesses became dependent on immigrant labor Large cities characterized as immigrant cities o Motivations for immigration: Widespread poverty Taxation Declining economies Illiteracy Hunger Lack of land Religious/political persecution o US: Looking for free labor Many immigrants became held down by long-term contracts for big corporations th By 1910 a full 7 of the US population was foreign born Ellis island- immigrant processing facility Nativism- cultural backlash on immigrants from Americans Jacob Riis, “Little Italy”- investigative journalist, muckraker, reformist 1. Stereotypes of the Italians- a. Violent, Gamblers i. Mob mentality b. At the bottom, lowlevel humans Padrone- banker c. Low wage jobs, poor working conditions Negative portrayal of industrialized America Describes living conditions as filthy, dirty, pigsty 2. Stereotypes of Jews- a. Only good at math b. Hold on to religious traditions Riis’ view on immigrants: Patronizing Negative Ramped problems with large scale immigration and industrialization Paints negative picture of immigrant communities Corresca, “Biography” 1. Terrible experience as a child. Ran away because he wasn’t ‘stealing enough’, threatened to be made a cripple. a. Runs away to Ellis Island, meets with his Uncle Bertolo, who’s a Padrone b. Bertolo exploits Corresca 2. Corresca becomes successful through giving up his Italian identity (Americanizes himself) a. Through learning English b. Becomes a citizen c. Becomes a republican, votes d. Snuff out garlic and onion smell because customers wouldn’t know he’s Italian e. Makes a decent amount of money, saves it Frowne 1. Promotes immigration by demonstrating you can achieve success through hardwork 2. Old World vs. New World a. Represents new world, success, money, ambition 3. Started working in the sewing shops, made mistakes called “stupid animal” 4. She’s educated, has money, committed, joined a union a. Education helped her feel ‘higher’ 5. Does not consider herself poor anymore (middle class) 6. Common themes of Corresca and Frowne: a. Transition of becoming Americans requires some hard work, positivity, and saving money (continuously making improvements) b. Their stories promote immigration (success stories of improvement) Plunkitt of Tammany Hall 1. Political ‘bosses’/ ‘machines’ a. Not trustworthy 2. Specifically go out and do things for people to gain votes a. Own hidden agenda for own personal benefit b. Goes to ethnic communities and builds relationships (patronage) 3. By serving the political machine, does he represent the people? a. Riordon- muckraker for NY evening post i. Says ‘bosses’ are political hacks, vultures, exploiting for votes ii. Reformers want disinterests statements, progressivists like Theodore Roosevelt Progressivists- reaction to bosses, corruption Reformers- also speaking out against political machines History 225 LECTURE Notes The Four Ghosts that Haunt Constitution Hall 1. Constitutional Convention: -Who were the delegates? (55) Wealthiest merchants, slaveholding planters, lawyers, businessmen, men of property, men of property, college grads, “money men” -Could elites draft a constitution that serves their own material interests? Or will they create a constitution that incorporates the wishes of the people? How do these rich men define the public interest? -Alexander Hamilton’s 6-hour speech: (July) To convention: this is what we need to create; hierarchical proposal for a new constitution People are changing, can’t be trusted, don’t have property or knowledge to know what’s right for the country Protect new government from “prudence” of democracy Advocates president and senate elected for life (elected monarchy) Extremely undemocratic Everyone agrees good idea, but recognized that that is impossible/impractical o Lacks popular legitimacy o Would create instability, riots -Idea that the people, although not present, had a “presence” at the convention Accommodated into the new constitution (“ghosts”) 2. Ghosts that Haunted the Delegates -Thomas Paine voice that encourages ordinary farmers, working men, to demand a voice in political affairs -Paper money laws that enables debtors to pay their debts in money than in hard currency (sterling silver, gold, coin) -Daniel Shays Rebellions -Specter of Slave Rebellion LECTURE 3. Compromise (The Constitution) -Mix of accommodation and coercion of powers Grants federal gov’t authority to suppress and protect the states from domestic violence National army that can take down rebellions (state militias) -Accommodations to the “people” Coercive powers against the people would be seen as “heavy handed” Implementation of laws that restrict Tom Paine and money legislators of what they can do in the states States cannot issue own currency (only federal gov’t can) Fed Gov’t can also regulate contracts, regulate commerce Declares Fed Gov’t/ Constitution is the supreme law of the land Grants popular election of representatives into the House of Representatives o HOR becomes democratic part of the constitution o One delegate for every 30,000 (Tom Paine argues one for every 300) o States determine who has the right to vote Federal Constitution says nothing about the right to vote (later amendments change this) STATES REGULATE -Legacy Constitution is neither democratic or aristocratic but BOTH o More hierarchical, but more democratic than it is today o Opens up amendment process and Bill of Rights o First act of congress- amendments of the Constitution o First 10 amendments of the constitution- Bill of Rights 10 Amendments- Liberties/Rights that are protected by the federal gov’t (cannot be taken away) Constitution incorporated democratic components due to influence of popular movements (Tom Paine, Shay’s rebellion) Elites could not ignore the people “outside” of the hall (taken them into consideration) History 225 LECTURE Notes The Politics of the New Nation The 1790’s became one of the most politically contentious decades in American History 1. First Congress and Slavery -Enhanced rights of property over rights of people -Presented to abolish slavery and they decided not to (why did they not abolish slavery?) Slaves were demanding rights, petitions, legislatures State constitutions in North put in provisions for immediate, or gradual freedom -Slavery is a political metaphor and a political contradiction -Slave Self-Activity and Protest Slaves running to British side, protests -Contagion of Liberty First emancipations Free Black communities in the North New Virginia laws loosen regulations of slavery o Law in 1782, gives masters the right to free their slaves -Thomas Jefferson and the Notes on the State of Virginia (Jefferson says no to abolition) -Robert Carter I
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