NUTRI 2000 Chapter 9 Notes
NUTRI 2000 Chapter 9 Notes Nutrition 2000
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Chapter 9: Water and Minerals Section 9.1: Water • Water makes up 50-70% of the human body. • You can live up to weeks without food, but only a few days without water. v Water in the Body—Intracellular and Extracellular Fluid • Intracellular fluid: fluid that is within the cell and represents 2/3 of body fluid. • Extracellular fluid: fluid that is outside of the cell and represents 1/3 of body fluid. • The body controls water amount in the intra and extracellular parts by controlling ion movement and concentration. • Ions: minerals with electrical charges. - Electrolytes: substances that separate into ion and can conduct and electrical current. • Osmosis is the way the body maintains the right amount of water in each compartment. - Osmosis: the passing of water through a semi permeable membrane from a less concentrated area to a high concentrated one. • Positive ions pair with negative ions (opposites attract!). v Water is the Universal Solvent • Many different solutes can be dissolved in water, so it is called a universal solvent. • Carbs, proteins, minerals, and many vitamins are water soluble, fats are not. • Depending on fluid intake, the urine output is 1 liter per day. • Water is one of the by products when carbs, lipids, and proteins metabolize. v Water Contributes to Body Temperature Regulation • Water has the ability to hold heat, so that is how water temperature changes. • Water molecules are polar and are attached to each other. • There is a lot of energy needed to change body temperature. • When the cells use carbs, proteins, and lipids, energy is released in the form of heat. • 60% of chemical energy in food is turned to body heat, the other 40% is converted to energy the cells can use. v Water Moistens, Lubricates, and Cushions • Saliva is a lubricant because it helps pass the food through the esophagus and into the stomach. • Mucus lines the inside of the stomach to protect it from the acidic environment. • Water lubricates the knees and the joints. v The Water Balancing Act • Water is not stored in the body, it is lost through the lungs, skin, and urine/feces. • The AI for adult women is 2.7 liters, and 3.7 liters for adult men. • Almost all foods contain water. • Urinary excretion and perspiration are two types of water output. • There are 3 hormones that participate in fluid conservation. - Antidiuretic hormone: a hormone that is released by the pituitary gland when the solute concentration in the blood is high. - Angiotensin: a hormone released by the liver and activated by kidney enzymes. - Aldosterone: a hormone produced by the adrenal glands when the blood volume is low. • Dehydration: not drinking enough water to replace the losses made by the body. Kidney stones are a consequence. - You can tell if you are dehydration by your urine color, which is usually darker in this case. • If a person drinks too much water, then that person can suffer from water intoxication. - Water intoxication: when high intake of water dilutes the blood and other fluid compartments. v Sources of Water • Hard water: has high amount of calcium, magnesium, and iron. • Soft water: has little to no amount of calcium or magnesium, but can be high in sodium. Section 9.2: Minerals—Essential Elements For Health • Minerals: contain individual chemical elements and cannot be broken down any further. • There are 2 types of minerals: - Trace minerals: a mineral that is needed from the diet of less than 100 milligrams a day. - Major minerals: a mineral that is needed from the diet of more than 100 milligrams a day. v Absorption and Storage of Minerals in the Body • Age, gender, genetics, and nutrition all effects mineral absorption. • Phytate and oxalate (components of fiber) both effect the absorption of some mineral • The average North American diet gets its minerals from plant and animal sources • Most minerals are absorbed in the small intestine, small amounts can be absorbed by the stomach, and some sodium and potassium in the large intestine. • Minerals are stored in tissues throughout the body. Others are also stored in muscle tissue, glands, and organs. v Mineral Toxicities • Excessive intake of minerals can lead to toxicity. • Interactions with other nutrients can also cause problems. v Preservation of Minerals in Foods • Minerals aren’t lost through processing, storage, or coking for animal sources, but they are for plant sources. - The more refined a plant source, the lower its mineral content. • Making half your grains whole helps to preserve the mineral content in foods. Section 9.3: Sodium (Na) • Salt is 40% sodium and 60% chloride. • All Americans exceed the dietary requirements of salt. v Functions of Sodium • The digestive tract absorbs almost all of the consumed sodium. • Fluid balance is maintained by moving/actively pumping sodium ions to where water is needed. • It also helps in nerve impulse conduction and in absorbing some nutrients. • Eating too much sodium and not drinking enough water can cause dehydration. v Sodium Deficiency • A diet low in sodium with a lot of sweating, vomiting, and diarrhea can cause muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, etc. • To replenish sodium, one can eat salty foods like soup and crackers. v Getting Enough Sodium • 77% of our sodium intake comes from the salt that is added during food manufacturing and preparation. • 11% of our intake comes from the sodium we add at home. • 12% of our intake comes naturally. • Medical specialists say that adults should reduce their sodium intake if they suffer from hypertension. • Excessive sodium can cause increased calcium output in the urine. v Avoiding Too Much Sodium • The UL for sodium in adults is 2300 milligrams, which is the same as 1 teaspoon. • Excessive sodium intake can cause a person to be obese or overweight. • 95% of Americans exceed the UL for sodium. Section 9.4: Potassium (K) v Functions of Potassium • Potassium performs many of the same functions of sodium. • Intracellular fluids contain 95% of the potassium in the body. • A high potassium intake causes lower blood pressure. v Potassium Deficiency • Hypokalemia: a life-threatening problem that causes low blood potassium. • People on low calorie diets and athletes that exercise for extended periods of time can become potassium deficient. v Getting Enough Potassium • Foods that are unprocessed, milk, whole grains, dried beans, and meats are rich in potassium. • 90% of the potassium consumed is absorbed v Avoiding Too Much Potassium • There is no UL for potassium, because potassium does not lead to toxicity. Section 9.5: Chloride (Cl) v Functions of Chloride • Chloride also helps in regulating fluid balance like sodium and potassium. • Chloride ions play a role in acid base balance in the body. • It helps in the functioning of the nervous system. v Chloride Deficiency • Acid base balance can be disrupted if there are low levels of chloride in the blood. • People who suffer from bulimia or gastroenteritis can suffer from a deficiency. v Getting Enough Chloride • Seaweed, celery, tomatoes, olives, and a few fruits are good sources. • Most of our chloride intake comes from added salt. • Almost all of the chloride that is consumes id absorbed, • Chloride is excreted through the kidneys, but also lost through sweat. v Avoiding Too Much Chloride • The average American consumes more of chloride than needed. • Aging adults should control their salt intake due to excessive chloride playing a role in hypertension. Section 9.6: Calcium (Ca) v Functions of Calcium • Calcium is 40% of all the minerals found in the human body. • All cells need calcium in order to function. • Calcium is in hydroxyapatite, which makes the bone hard. • Calcium has many functions - Helps in forming blood clots - Muscle contractions - Nerve transmissions - Regulating cellular metabolism - Maintaining normal blood pressure - Regulating glucose concentration • A good calcium intake can reduce the risk of colon cancer, decrease the formation of kidney stones, and decrease blood pressure. v Calcium Deficiency • If a person doesn’t get enough calcium through their diet and the levels of calcium in the blood decrease, hormonal actions are taken to replenish it. 1) The bones release the calcium. 2) The intestines absorb more calcium. 3) The kidneys keep more calcium in the blood. • Tetany: caused by abnormal calcium metabolism in which there is a sharp contraction in the muscles and failure of relaxation after. • Osteoporosis: when bones are fragile and porous due to low mineral density. There are 2 types of osteoporosis. - Type 1 Osteoporosis: when bones rapidly demineralize after menopause, it affects the trabecular bone and cortical bone. - Type 2 Osteoporosis: is usually diagnosed later in life and is caused due to the breakdown of the cortical and trabecular bone. - With either type of osteoporosis, height is lost. o Kyphosis: a hump/bend that develops in the spine that causes height loss. • Women lose 1-3% each year of their bone mass after menopause. Men as well, but they have a more gradual decrease. • Osteopenia: a bone disease in which there is low mineral density. • The key to osteoporosis prevention is to build dense bones in the first 30 years of life. • DEXA scan: a machine that tests bone density. v Getting Enough Calcium • In order for calcium to be efficiently absorbed, it needs an acidic environment in the gastrointestinal tract. • Efficient calcium absorption in the small intestine is dependent on the presence of the active form of vitamin D. • People over the age of 40 have a hard time meeting their calcium needs. • The RDA of calcium per day for adults over the age of 50 is 1000 milligrams. • For women older than 50 and men/women over the age of 70 the RDA increases to 1200 milligrams per day. • Calcium is found in plant and animal foods, fat free milk is the best source. • Calcium absorption can be reduced if oxalates are present, which are found in sweet potatoes, collard greens, spinach, and rhubarb. v Avoiding Too Much Calcium • There is a UL set for calcium due to the overconsumption of it causing kidney stones. • There are many dairy alternatives available that look at feel like dairy, but are not from animals. - Soy milk, rice milk, and coconut are all examples. • We should meet our vitamin D and calcium intake through food first, instead of supplements. • Calcium supplementation is beneficial if a person has a milk allergy. • If taking a calcium supplement, make sure it has vitamin D as well, because that enhances the absorption. • Calcium supplements can cause gas, bloating, or constipation. Section 9.7: Phosphorus (P) v Functions of Phosphorus • 85% of phosphorus is found in hydroxyapatite crystals and the rest (15%) is found in tissue, blood, and extracellular fluid. • It is also a part of DNA and RNA, helps in maintaining fluid balance and activating/deactivating of many enzymes. v Phosphorus Deficiency • Phosphorus deficiency is not likely but can be caused from starvation, hormonal imbalance, or certain medications. • Older women that are undergoing osteoporosis treatments are also at a risk for deficiency. v Getting Enough Phosphate • Phosphate is naturally found in milk, cheese, meat, and bread. These foods also provide the majority of phosphorus in the diet. • The absorption of phosphorus is fairy high, about 55-80% is absorbed. • The RDA for phosphorus is higher for children and young adults to support growth and development. v Avoiding Too Much Phosphorus • There is a UL set for phosphorus, which is 3-4 grams a day, anything grater can cause mineralization of soft tissue. Section 9.8: Magnesium (Mg) v Functions of Magnesium • Magnesium participates in heart and nerve functions along with enzyme reactions. • After contraction, magnesium helps in relaxing the muscles. • A benefit of magnesium is that it decreases blood pressure by dilating arteries. v Magnesium Deficiency • Low blood magnesium causes irregular heartbeat, muscle pain, disorientation, and seizures. • Deficiency develops slowly. • Alcohol use disorders cause dietary intake to be poor, and therefore, cause a magnesium deficiency. v Getting Enough Magnesium • Magnesium is found in chlorophyll, so plant products are a great source. • Poor sources are refined grain products. • Interactions with certain nutrients can reduce absorption. Also diets that are high in fiber or phosphorus limit the absorption in the intestines. v Avoiding Too Much Magnesium • Too much of magnesium can cause diarrhea, so the UL is 350 milligrams a day. • People that have kidney failure or over use over the counter medicines can have toxicity problems. Section 9.9: Iron (Fe) • Iron is a trace mineral that occupies the largest amount in the body. • About 30% of the world is anemic, and half is caused due to iron deficiency. v Functions of Iron • Iron is a part of hemoglobin and myoglobin. • Iron is also used as a part of enzymes, proteins, and compounds that cells use in energy production. • Iron is needed in many other processes like: - The brain and immune function - Drug detoxification in the liver - Synthesis of collagen for bone health v Iron Deficiency • The concentration of hemoglobin in the red blood cells will decrease if iron is not provided for the synthesis of it. • The symptoms of anemia are pale skin, fatigue, always being cold, loss of appetite, and apathy. • Many people with an iron deficiency have anemia, and there are also those without anemia that have an iron deficiency. • Women are more prone to being anemic during childbearing years and pregnant women. • To cure iron deficiency anemia one must take iron supplements. v Absorption and Distribution of Iron • There are 4 things that iron absorption depends on: - The person’s iron traffic - The type of form in food - The GI tract acidity state - Other dietary components • Too much iron can be damaging to the body. • Iron needs are increased during pregnancy and growth. • Heme iron: iron that is provided from animal tissues in the forms of hemo and myo globin. • Myoglobin: iron containing protein that binds oxygen in muscle tissue. • Non heme iron: iron from plant products. • An acidic environment affects iron absorption. v Getting Enough Iron • Good sources of iron are beans, meat, and cereals. Poor sources of iron are milk and eggs. • Most women do not consume enough iron. v Avoiding Too Much Iron • Too much iron can lead to stomach irritation, so the UL for iron is 45 milligrams per day. • Children are often the victims of iron poisoning due to the intake of iron supplements, which look like candy to them. • Hemochromatosis: a disorder of iron metabolism in which the cells in the liver are heart are eventually poisoned. Section 9.10: Zinc (Zn) v Functions of Zinc • About 200 enzymes need zinc as a cofactor for activity. • Zinc plays a role in many things like: - DNA synthesis/function - Protein metabolism/healing/growth - Development of reproductive organs/bones - Storage/release/function of insulin - Cell membrane structure/function - White blood cell formation • Even though zinc helps in immune function, taking more than the RDA wont make a difference in the improvement of the immune function. v Zinc Deficiency • Rashes, diarrhea, lack of appetite, delayed wound healing, and metallic like sense of taste are all symptoms of deficiency. v Getting Enough Zinc • Diets that are rich in animal derived sources of proteins are high in zinc. • People with a borderline zinc status are vegans, poor children, and older people that have alcohol use problems. • 40% of dietary zinc is absorbed. • Zinc that is naturally found in foods is better absorbed than the kind found in supplements. v Avoiding Too Much Zinc • Eating too much zinc for a long time can cause problems in metabolizing copper. • The overconsumption of zinc supplements and zinc fortified foods can cause toxicity. Section 9.11: Selenium (Se) v Functions of Selenium • Selenium is a trace mineral. • It helps in aiding the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase. v Selenium Deficiency • Muscle pain and a type of heart damage are forms of selenium deficiency. • Low blood levels of selenium have been linked to an increase cause of certain cancers. v Getting Enough Selenium • Fish, meat, shellfish, and eggs, are all good sources of zinc. • The RDA is 55 micrograms for adults and the daily value is 70 micrograms. v Avoiding Too Much Selenium • Brazil nuts are the only nuts with a high concentration of selenium in them. • Too much selenium has been shown to be toxic, so the UL is 400 micrograms a day for adults. - Toxicity signs are hair loss, weakness, nausea, vomiting, and cirrhosis. Section 9.12: Iodide (I) v Functions of Iodide • Iodide and tyrosine synthesize thyroid hormones. v Iodide Deficiency • Goiter: a large lump in the neck (enlarged thyroid gland) due to the deficiency of iodide. • If a person doesn’t take enough iodide, then their thyroid glands can enlarge. • Congenital hypothyroidism: stunted growth of offspring due to iodide deficiency of the mother. v Getting Enough Iodide • Half a teaspoon of salt (iodide fortified) meets the RDA. • Vegans may not consume enough iodide in their diet. • Seas salt and kosher salts don’t usually contain iodide. v Avoiding Too Much Iodide • The UL for iodide is 1.1 milligrams a day because when too much is consumed, the thyroid hormone synthesis can become inhibited. Section 9.13: Copper (Cu) v Functions of Copper • Copper serves as a cofactor for many enzymes and also plays a role in the function of enzymes that create cross-links in connective tissue proteins. • Copper is also a cofactor in the electron transport chain, which converts the energy in carbs, proteins, and fats to ATP. • It also helps in the transportation of iron and many other things. v Copper Deficiency • Copper deficiency symptoms are a form of anemia, low white blood cell count, bone loss, poor growth, and some forms of heart disease. v Getting Enough Copper • Liver, legumes, seeds, whole grain breads, and cereals are good sources of copper. • Milk, fruits, and veggies are a poor source. • The best copper sources are the ones you get from food, not supplements. • When there is more copper in the body that can be stored, the liver puts it into bile v Avoiding Too Much Copper • A does of copper that exceeds 10 milligrams causes toxicity. • The consequences of toxicity are GI distress, vomiting blood, tarry feces, and damage to the liver and kidneys. Section 9.14: Fluoride (F) • Fluoride is a trace mineral that is essential for human health. v Functions of Fluoride • Fluoride prevents dental caries, causes teeth to be stronger and resistant to acid, and has an antibacterial effect on microorganisms in plaque. v Getting Enough Fluoride • Marine fish, clams, lobster, crab, shrimp, tea and seaweed are all good sources. • Most of our fluoride comes from oral hygiene products. • The AI is 3.2-3.8 milligrams a day. v Avoiding Too Much Fluoride • The UL is 1.3-2.2 milligrams a day for young children and 10 milligrams a day for children 9 years and older. • Fluorosis: when children swallow large amounts of toothpaste. - The best prevention method of this is to use a pea sized amount. Section 9.15: Chromium (Cr) v Functions of Chromium • It enhances insulin function and is required for glucose uptake in the cells. • Supplements have been promoted to help in weight loss and muscle building. v Chromium Deficiency • A chromium deficiency happens due to impaired blood glucose control and high blood cholesterol and triglycerides. • Borderline deficiencies often go undetected because sensitive measures are not available. v Getting Enough Chromium • Chromium absorption is very low and is enhanced by vitamin C and niacin. • Unabsorbed chromium is excreted in the feces. • The AI is 25-35 micrograms a day. • There is no UL set because toxicity from food sources has not ben seen. Section 9.15: Other Trace Minerals v Manganese (Mn) • It is required as a cofactor for the synthesis of glucose and metabolism of amino acids. • Deficiency doesn’t develop unless the mineral is removed from the diet. • The AI is 1.8-3.2 milligrams a day. • The UL is 11 milligrams a day. v Molybdenum (Mo) • Many enzymes use this. • There has been no reported deficiency. • Good sources are milk and diary products, beans, and whole grains. • The RDA is 45 micrograms and the DV is 75 micrograms.