Chapter 19 Notes (Viruses)
Chapter 19 Notes (Viruses) BIOL 111 102
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Romano on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 111 102 at Camden County College taught by Jill Carroll in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Modern Biology in Science at Camden County College.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
CHAPTER 19: VIRUSES Viral Structure Viruses are not cellular Nucleic Acid - Some viruses have RNA instead of DNA - Double stranded RNA possible If amount of Adenine = amount of Uracil and amount of Guanine = amount of Cytosine, then RNA is double stranded Protein coat/Capsid Animal viruses can have an additional envelope made of the previous host’s plasma membrane Viral shape allows more cell volume Viral Reproduction Lytic Cycle - Host cell bursts - Chops up host DNA - Uses host’s ribosomes to make copies of viral DNA and protein coats - Viruses don’t have their own ribosomes - Causes death - Virulent viruses/causes disease Lysogenic Cycle - Doesn’t kill host - Virus inserted into host’s DNA - Prophage: bacteria with viral DNA - Prophage can splice back out and enter Lytic Cycle - Temperate Virus: non-fatal virus - Can’t enter Lysogenic Cycle from Lytic Cycle Phage Conversion Vibrio Cholerae (Cholera) - Avirulent - Bacteria with viral DNA make Cholera fatal HIV-Retrovirus Retroviruses have RNA instead of DNA Viral DNA gets inserted into host’s DNA - Reverse transcriptae enzyme makes viral RNA into complimentary DNA strand for host’s DNA Animal virus = additional envelope - Contains glycoproteins - Virus with new DNA binds to host cell wall to be brought in by glycoproteins Mutates easily - Undergoes Lytic Cycle on helper T-cells - Kills immune system Viral Diseases Polio - Attacks central nervous system - Transferred through water Small Pox - No vaccine since eradication - Small Pox microbes brought back into United States by bioterrorists in 1990s Herpes Simplex - Chicken Pox - Shingles - Cold sores - Genital warts - Can stay dormant in nervous system causing Shingles Viruses and Cancer HPV leads to cervical cancer - Asymptomatic: no symptoms shown - Causes genital warts Alters host gene - Proto-oncogene: normal gene - Oncogene: gene that hyperstimulates cell division - Tumor Suppressor Gene: gene that inhibits cell division Introduction of cancer causing gene can prevent cancer causing viruses if administered early enough Prions Infectious protein particle No DNA/RNA or nucleic acid Misfolded proteins - Causes normal proteins to misfold Prions can’t be denatured