Chapter 8 notes
Chapter 8 notes HDF 303
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by andrea lott on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDF 303 at Central Michigan University taught by Shannon Sexton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Early Childhood Development in Human Development at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
Chapter 8: HDF 303 Self-Concept in Middle Childhood More refined self-concept Social comparisons Emphasize competencies, both positive and negative When describing abilities will include both positive and negative traits now. Social Comparisons: Judging their abilities in relation to those of others. Can compare characteristics multiple individuals. Academic self-esteem- Predicts how enjoyable children judge school subjects to be and their willingness to try hard. Influences on Self-Concept Cultural (varies between cultures) Asian parents → value modesty. Children are generous in their praise for others. Willingness to help others, respect for parents, and authority is valued. Asian children score lower in self-esteem even though they score higher in academic performance Influences on Self-Esteem Attributions Mastery-oriented- Crediting their success to ability. Will attribute failure to factors that can be changed and controlled. Insufficient effort Difficult task Attributions Learned helplessness -attribute their failures to their abilities not their successes. When they do succeed they are likely to view that luck was the reason for the success. Preventing Learned Helplessness Select meaningful and diverse tasks, appropriately matched to current competence Communicate warmth, confidence in child’s abilities, value of achievement, and importance of effect in success Make evaluations private. Offer small classes, provide individualized support. Provide cooperative learning and peer tutoring options Emphasis individual progress and self-improvement Over indulgent parents are linked to unrealistically high self-esteem even when they are not performing well. Children do not benefit from compliments that have no basis. “You are terrific” Perspective Taking In middle childhood, major advances in perspective taking support: Self-concept Self-esteem Understanding of others Increasing social skills Both adults’ and peers’ explanations of their viewpoints contribute to children’s perspective taking. Selman’s Stages of Perspective Taking Level 0: Undifferentiated: 3-6 years Recognize that self and others can have different thoughts and feelings but they will often confuse the two. Level 1: Social-Informational- 4-9 years Children understand that different perspectives may be because different people have access to different information. Level 2: Self-reflective 7-12 years Children can step into someone else’s shoes and view their thoughts. Can view other’s perspective. Level 3 Third-party 10-15 years Children can step outside two person situation and imagine how the self and other are viewed from the point of view of a third impartial party. Level 4 Societal perspective taking 14-adult Individuals understand that third party perspective taking can be influenced by one of more systems of larger societal values. Friendship in Middle Childhood Personal qualities, trust become important. More selective in choosing friends Friendships can last several years. Influence each other’s behavior Peer Acceptance Categories Bullies and Their Victims About 10-20% of children are bullies, and 15–30% are repeatedly victimized. Victimization leads to adjustment problems: depression, loneliness, low self-esteem, and poor school performance. Family Influences The amount of time that children spend with their families decline dramatically. Parenting is easier for parents with an authoritative parenting style. Coregulation-the gradual shift of control from parent to child. The parent does not let go completely. Parents exercise general oversight while letting children take charge of moment by moment decisions Siblings Rivalry-increase in middle childhood. Same sex siblings are more likely to get more parent comparisons. Companionship and assistance Help with academic and peer challenges. A good way to look at evolution of families is to observe television. TV shows reflect current families and help shape the definition of a family. 1950’s Leave it to Beaver 1960’s Andy Griffith, Courtship of Eddie’s Father. 1970’s Brady Bunch, One day at a time 1980’s Cosby 1990’s Rosanne, Married with Children 2000’s L word, Modern Family, Suite Life of Zack and Cody, Big Love. Nuclear Families First time married parents with children are their biological or adopted children 59% of children in nuclear families have both parents in the work force Cohabitation Individuals who live together in a committed relationship but are not married Younger children more likely to live with unmarried parents than older children Family may operate like a nuclear family, without legal marriage between parents Extended Families Additional family members such as grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins share the home. Found particularly in Latino, African American, and Middle Eastern families International Divorce Rates Helping Families through Divorce Divorce mediation Parent education programs Joint custody Child support Single-Parent Families Single-parent status today more likely due to divorce than death About 25% of U.S. children living with single parents More women choosing to have children without marriage. Single fathers with custody increasing Increase in single people allowed to adopt children Single parents more likely to live in poverty Blended Families 60% of divorced parents go on to remarry within six years after the divorce One-third of today’s American children are expected to become stepchildren before they reach the age of 18 Grandparents One in 12 children in kinship care: grandparents or other relatives become surrogate parents Access to records not allowed without legal guardianship 18% of children living with their grandparents are below the poverty line 23% of children are not covered by health insurance Same-Sex Families 2 to 7 million children being raised in same-sex households Same-sex families face discrimination and legal issues
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