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SPAU 3304: WEEK 16

by: Kimberly Notetaker

SPAU 3304: WEEK 16 SPAU 3304

Kimberly Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes cover everything from lecture on Tuesday, 4/26 and concludes the material that will be on Exam 4 and thus the (Cumulative) Final.
Communication Sciences
Dr. Garst
Class Notes
communication, sciences
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPAU 3304 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Garst in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Communication Sciences in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Texas at Dallas.


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Date Created: 04/28/16
Meaning of an Utterance  Conveyed on 2 levels: I. Segmental o From the nuclei and boundaries of syllables » Phoneme and combination of phonemes II. Utterance Level o Spans units larger than a phoneme Suprasegmentals: (aspects of the utterance) - Features of the utterance that are not defined by the individual speech sounds (beyond the phoneme) - BUT can carry meaning - Examples (acoustic description):  Voice quality (fundamental frequency)  Speech Melody (intonation) – the up and down within the utterance  Loudness (intensity)  Timing (duration)  Stress **They don’t change the distinctive phonological quality, but can change utterance meaning. Suprasegmentals (Prosody): 3 Components 1) Pitch Contour (tone/intonation contour)  Multiple levels of 0contours within an utterance  Reflects changes in 0over an utterance  Provides information on speaker affect  Can differentiate questions versus statements  Pitch Contour for Statement vs, Question o Statement: Falling intonation (but can also stay stable) o Question: Rising intonation  Questions may have different pitch contours o Yes/No questions: Rising intonation o Wh- questions: Dropping intonation pattern  Statements may have different pitch contours depending on their meaning… o Angry: Falling intonation o Disbelief: Both falling/rising o Uncertain: Rising intonation  F0Declination: Tendency for F 0 to decrease over the course of an utterance  Individual syllables may receive a slight upward inflection 2) Duration  Length of phonemes o Used to distinguish between syllables  Examples: » Flap-tap duration (pretty, patio, saddle) » Diphthongs longer » Lax vowels shorter » Phase – Final Position 2 syllable “tomorrow” lengthened  “Tomorrow I’ll go” vs. “I’ll go tomorrow”  Juncture (duration between syllables) o Used to distinguish between the words in an utterance; your pauses 3) Stress  The amount of emphasis placed on a segment for purposes of conveying meaning  Relative  depends how syllables relate to nearby syllables o F0 (pitch) – usually higher o Intensity (loudness) – usually greater o Duration – usually longer  Lexical Stress: o Stress patterns in words: » Ex: unicorn, immediate » Varies between nouns and verbs in English  For example, digest (noun) vs. digest (verb)  Compound Noun vs. Adj + Noun Stress Contrast  “black board” vs. “blackboard” (less of a juncture + initial stress)  Sentential Stress: o Emphasizes words in sentences:  Is that your red book? (not the green one)  Contrastive Stress: o Emphasizes normally weak syllable to clarify a contrast:  Receive, not deceive; abduct, not adduct Physiology Measures  Used to Measure Articulation - Acoustic vs. Physiological Measures o Acoustic analysis evaluates speech signal o Other methods can describe articulator movement


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