New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 11 Notes

by: Chasia Notetaker

Week 11 Notes BIOL 12000

Chasia Notetaker
GPA 3.56

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the week of April 11, 2016.
Fundamentals of Biology II: Ecology and E
Nancy L Jacobson
Class Notes
Biology, Biology: Ecology and Evolution
25 ?




Popular in Fundamentals of Biology II: Ecology and E

Popular in Biology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chasia Notetaker on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 12000 at Ithaca College taught by Nancy L Jacobson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology II: Ecology and E in Biology at Ithaca College.


Reviews for Week 11 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/28/16
Week of April 11, 2016    Population Momentum = demographic momentum   ­even if every couple has no more than two children population growth will continue for many  years  ­happens when a population has been growing rapidly but there is a decrease in reproduction  relative to mortality rates  ­because there are already many pre­reproductive girls alive  ­more than ¼ of the world population is 0­14 years old (pre­reproductive)  ­population will continue to increase as the large number of pre­reproductive females become  reproductive     Countries are now in different stages of the demographic transition  ­birth rates are high, death rates decreasing (high r)  ­ex. Niger  ­birth rates decreasing, death rates low (positive but low­moderate r)   ­ex. Mexico  ­birth rates lower than death rates (negative r)  ­ex. Germany     Carrying Capacity  ­there are now 7.3 billion people   ­average r=1.1 people added/  people a year  ­ ~ 80 million people added each year   ­9­10 people by 2050 is probable     What is over carrying capacity?  ­ ~805 million people are chronically undernourished   ­Asia is the continent with the most hungry people­two thirds of the total 209 million  people, lower than in 1990­1992  ­from 18.7­11.3 percent globally   ­ ~783 million people do not have access to clean drinking water   ­estimated at 1­14 billion people  ­median 2.1­5.0 billion  ­depends on number of people and   ­people’s standard of living (level of consumption)   ­improvements in energy and water efficiency   ­how degraded the environment is or becomes    One method of determining K  ­ecological footprint   ­area of Earth’s surface required to sustainably support a person at a particular level of  development and consumption  ­area that produces resources we need  ­countries are increasing their use of resources as they industrialize     Community Ecology    Biological Communities  ­assemblages of all the populations of organisms living close together for potential  interaction  ­boundaries are hard to place   ­interactions are important (direct and indirect)  ­the structure of a community can be determined by  ­the number and abundance of species  ­a single less abundant species  ­disturbance     Interspecific competition  ­two types  Interference­ Competitive exclusion  ­one species excludes the other from an area  ­occurs in two species using the same resource  ­one species will be more efficient at using a resource or it will dominate  the other physically   ­thus one species outcompetes and excludes the other  Exploitative­ Resource partitioning  ­allows coexistence (avoids competitive exclusion)  ­species use different subsets of the resource they all need    Predation +/­  ­predation benefits the predator population but removes individuals from the prey population  ­predators often evolve better ways to find and capture prey  ­prey evolve better ways to escape being found and captured  ­camouflage may evolve in predators or prey  ­warning coloration and mimicry can evolve in prey to “avoid” being eaten  ­yellow jacket that stings has warning coloration  ­non stinging wasps, beetles, and flies mimic the yellow jacket  ­predators that have experience will avoid    Herbivory   ­usually not fatal, but takes energy to repair damage    Plant defences have evolved  ­chemical defenses are common (toxins)  ­we often use these as medicine and pesticides  ­salicylic acid (aspirin): from willow bark   ­digitalis (treat certain heart ailments): from foxglove  ­vincristine (treat certain cancers): from periwinkles  ­pyrethrin (insecticide) from chrysanthemums  ­herbivores evolve ways to get around plant defences  ­are specialists  ­some sequester plant toxin and use it as its own defense    Parasites and Pathogens  ­live on or in a host which is both its food and home  ­external parasites (ex. ticks and fleas)  ­internal parasites (ex. Flukes, tapeworms, and roundworms)  ­pathogens= microscopic parasites (ex. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protists)      Mutualism +/­   ­both species benefit  ­hard corals are animals with algae (zooxanthellae) in their tissues  ­coral animals  get food (products of photosynthesis  ­algae get a safe place to live in sunlit water and inorganic nutrients  ­mutualism may lead to one or more species becoming dependent on each other   ­they can’t live without each other     ­hard corals are dependent on the algae to provide enough energy to build the large reefs   ­algae will leave the coral if the temperature becomes too high ­ called bleaching  ­if the stress lasts long enough corals will die    Indirect Interactions    Three level interactions  ­plants>herbivores>carnivores  ­if carnivore population decreases, then allows herbivore population to increase, which causes  plant population to decrease  ­interaction between plants and carnivores is indirect    Community structure is determined by number and abundance of species  ­species richness (number of species)  ­species evenness (abundance of species) 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.