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Poltiical Science Chapter 14 Notes

by: Sierra Crumbaugh

Poltiical Science Chapter 14 Notes POLI 201 001

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Political Science > POLI 201 001 > Poltiical Science Chapter 14 Notes
Sierra Crumbaugh

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About this Document

These notes cover all of the Chapter 14 lecture slides as well as any other material covered by the professor during lecture.
American National Government
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra Crumbaugh on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 201 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Darmofal in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see American National Government in Political Science at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 04/28/16
Chapter  14 Thursday,  April  28,  204:40  PM The  Media  as  a  Political   Institution Tuesday,  April  19,  2016 10:47  AM • Although  not  a  formal  branch  of  the  U.S.   government,  the  media  play  a  critical   institutional  role  in  the  political  system • It  is  impossible  to  maintain  a  democratic   political  system  over  time  without  a   properly  functioning  media The  Media  as  a  Political   Institution:  Diversity Tuesday,  April  19,  2016 10:50  AM • A  diversity  of  sources,  firms,  and   technologies  makes  up  the  media ○ 1,400  daily  newspapers ○ 1,500  television  stations ○ Hundreds  of  weekly   magazines ○ Countless  websites • Available  in  most  every  language Types  of  Media:  Print Tuesday,  April  19,  2016 • Newspapers  and  magazines  are  the   oldest  forms  of  printed  political   communication Types  of  Media:  Print Tuesday,  April  19,  2016 • Newspapers  and  magazines  are  the   oldest  forms  of  printed  political   communication • Print  journalism  allows  for  greater   context,  depth,  and  analysis  than  other   formats • Competition  from  other  news  formats  -­‐ especially  the  intert  threatens  the   viability  of  print  media Broadcast  Media Tuesday,  April  19,  2016 • Television Networks:  CBS,  NBC,  ABC  (1950s) ○ ○ Cable  news:  CNN  (1980s),  Fox   News  (1990s),  and  MSNBC  (2000s) ○ Broadcast  media  engage  in  very   little  actual  reporting • Radio ○ Talk  radio  is  a  powerful  medium   for  mobilizing  American   conservatives Left-­‐wing  radio  has  been   ○ successful The  Internet Tuesday,  April  19,  2016 10:58  AM • The  internet  has  emerged  as  a   powerful  new  technology  for  the   dissemination  of  news  and   information,  with  a  wide  variety  of   political  perspectives • Many  internet  news  sites  aggregate   news  collected  by  other  media • Politicians  increasingly  communicate   with  voters  through  social  network   sites  such  as  Facebook  and  Twitter • Many  internet  news  sites  aggregate   news  collected  by  other  media • Politicians  increasingly  communicate   with  voters  through  social  network   sites  such  as  Facebook  and  Twitter Regulation  of  the   Electronic  and  Broadcast   News  Media Tuesday,  April  19,  2016 11:01  AM • In  the  United  States,  the  government   neither  owns  nor  controls  broadcast   networks • The  government  does  regulate  content   and  ownership  of  broadcast  media,  but   print  media  are  free  from  government   interference • This  tendency  can  be  traced  to  First   Amendment  protections  for  the  press Regulation  of  News   Media Thursday,  April  21,  2016 10:06  AM • Broadcast  media  face  greater  scrutiny   from  federal  regulators  than  do  other   media • Content  and  ownership  are  key  issues   • Media  regulation ○ Federal  Communications   Commission  (FCC)   ○ Licenses  broadcasters  and   regulated  profanity,  obscenity,   and  indecency ○ Licenses  broadcasters  and   regulated  profanity,  obscenity,   and  indecency Regulation  of  Broadcast   Media:  FCC  Regulations Thursday,  April  21,  2016 10:08  AM • Equal  Time  Rule:  Broadcasters  must   provide  candidates  for  the  same  office   an  equal  opportunity  to  communicate   their  message • Right  of  Rebuttal:  Individuals  have  the   right  to  respond  to  personal  attacks • Fairness  Doctrine:  The  FCC  requires   broadcasters  to  provide  time  for   opposing  views  on  issues The  Internet  and   Government  Regulation Thursday,  April  21,  2016 • Federal  regulation  of  the  Internet  is  also   highly  contested • Supporters  argue  that  content  originators   should  be  protected  from  websites  that   facilitate  the  distribution  of  protected   content • Foreign-­‐based  Internet  companies  can  easily   escape  federal  regulation Freedom  of  the  Press Thursday,  April  21,  2016 • Guaranteed  in  the  First  Amendment • Prior  restraint:  an  effort  by  a  government   agency  to  block  the  publication  of  material   it  deems  libelous  or  harmful  in  some  other   Freedom  of  the  Press Thursday,  April  21,  2016 • Guaranteed  in  the  First  Amendment • Prior  restraint:  an  effort  by  a  government   agency  to  block  the  publication  of  material   it  deems  libelous  or  harmful  in  some  other   way • Near  v.  Minnesota   (1931)  set  a  high  legal   threshold  for  government  prior  restraint Organization  and  Ownership   of  the  Media Thursday,  April  21,  2016 • 1996  Telecommunications  Act  led  to  media   consolidation • The  internet  can  provide  a  counterweight  to   media  consolidation • But  there  are  surprisingly  few  distinct  national   sources  for  news What  Affects  News  Coverage? Thursday,  April  21,  2016 10:19  AM • Journalists  play  a  critical  role  in  shaping  news   coverage • Although  most  journalists  strive  objectively,   personal  biases  inevitably  shape  their   perspectives • What  do  journalists  want?   ○ Ratings ○ Career  success ○ Professional  prestige Journalists Thursday,  April  21,  2016 10:24  AM • In  recent  years  there  has  been  greater   acceptance  of  partisanship  among  journalists • The  media  moguls  William  Randolph  Hearst   Journalists Thursday,  April  21,  2016 10:24  AM • In  recent  years  there  has  been  greater   acceptance  of  partisanship  among  journalists • The  media  moguls  William  Randolph  Hearst   (1863-­‐1951),  Rupert  Murdoch  (born  1931),   and  others  have  shaped  news  coverage   through  their  biases  and  business  interests   Do  Journalists  Bias  the  News? Thursday,  April  21,  2016 • More  journalists  identify  themselves  as   Democrats  and  liberals  than  as  Republicans   and  conservatives • Most  studies  have  failed  to  identify  major   biases  in  coverage  of  national  politics,  though   some  subtle  biases  do  exist Citizen  Journalism Thursday,  April  21,  2016 10:31  AM • The  emergence  of  citizen  journalism  enabled   by  then  internet,  promotes  a  wider  variety  of   perspectives • Citizen  journalists  played  a  major  role  in   recent  crises  in  Egypt,  Libya,  and  Syria • Critics  of  citizens  journalism  express  concern   about  upholding  traditional  journalistic   standards  and  training News  Sources:  News  Leaks Thursday,  April  21,  2016 10:33  AM • Individuals  shape  news  through  the   dissemination  of  confidential  information • In  1971,  Daniel  Ellsberg,  a  military  analyst   employed  by  the  RAND  Corporation,  release   to  the  New  York  Times  the  Pentagon  Papers,   10:33  AM • Individuals  shape  news  through  the   dissemination  of  confidential  information • In  1971,  Daniel  Ellsberg,  a  military  analyst   employed  by  the  RAND  Corporation,  release   to  the  New  York  Times  the  Pentagon  Papers,   a  top-­‐secret  study  of  U.S.  involvement  in  the   Vietnam  War • Edward  Snowden,  who  leaked  information   about  NSA  wiretapping,  is  a  more   contemporary  but  no  less  controversial   figure News  Sources:  Politicians Thursday,  April  21,  2016 10:36  AM • Press  conferences,  speeches,  and  other  powers   of  the  bully  pulpit  allow  presidents  to  set  and   shape  news  agendas • Government  agencies  sometimes  release   statistics  strategically   • Administration  officials  leak  information  to   shape  media  and  public  impressions  of  news   events  (for  example,  the  Valeria  Plame  scandal)   Manufactures  "News" Thursday,  April  21,  2016 10:39  AM • There  have  been  recent  cases  of   journalists  paid  by  officials  to  slant  news   stories • Government  videos  designed  to  resemble   actual  news  stories  attempt  to  sway  public   opinion • Politicization  of  news  undermines  public   faith  in  the  media  as  an  institution Consumers Thursday,  April  21,  2016 10:42  AM Consumers Thursday,  April  21,  2016 10:42  AM • The  news  business  is  ultimately  geared   toward  making  a  profit • By  attracting  lucrative  advertising,  news   outlets  cater  to  an  upscale  audience • "If  it  bleeds,  it  leads."  News  is  tailored  to   consumer  preferences  for  entertainment The  Media  and  Conflict Thursday,  April  21,  2016 10:44  AM • The  media  are  sometimes  accused  of   encouraging  conflict  and  even  violence   because  viewers  tune  in  for  dramatic   stories • But  protest  as  a  strategy  for  attracting   media  coverage  does  not  always  work,   as  the  media  frequently  focus  on  the   conflict  rather  than  the  issues  at  stake Media  Power  and   Responsibility Thursday,  April  21,  2016 • The  media  play  a  powerful  role  in   shaping  public  perception  of  news   events ○ Civil  Rights  Movement ○ War  in  Iraq ○ 2008  Presidential  Election   • There  is  inherent  tension  between  a   free  press  and  a  responsible  press


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