Poltiical Science Chapter 14 Notes
Poltiical Science Chapter 14 Notes POLI 201 001
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POLI 201 001
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra Crumbaugh on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 201 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Darmofal in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see American National Government in Political Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
Chapter 14 Thursday, April 28, 204:40 PM The Media as a Political Institution Tuesday, April 19, 2016 10:47 AM • Although not a formal branch of the U.S. government, the media play a critical institutional role in the political system • It is impossible to maintain a democratic political system over time without a properly functioning media The Media as a Political Institution: Diversity Tuesday, April 19, 2016 10:50 AM • A diversity of sources, firms, and technologies makes up the media ○ 1,400 daily newspapers ○ 1,500 television stations ○ Hundreds of weekly magazines ○ Countless websites • Available in most every language Types of Media: Print Tuesday, April 19, 2016 • Newspapers and magazines are the oldest forms of printed political communication Types of Media: Print Tuesday, April 19, 2016 • Newspapers and magazines are the oldest forms of printed political communication • Print journalism allows for greater context, depth, and analysis than other formats • Competition from other news formats -‐ especially the intert threatens the viability of print media Broadcast Media Tuesday, April 19, 2016 • Television Networks: CBS, NBC, ABC (1950s) ○ ○ Cable news: CNN (1980s), Fox News (1990s), and MSNBC (2000s) ○ Broadcast media engage in very little actual reporting • Radio ○ Talk radio is a powerful medium for mobilizing American conservatives Left-‐wing radio has been ○ successful The Internet Tuesday, April 19, 2016 10:58 AM • The internet has emerged as a powerful new technology for the dissemination of news and information, with a wide variety of political perspectives • Many internet news sites aggregate news collected by other media • Politicians increasingly communicate with voters through social network sites such as Facebook and Twitter • Many internet news sites aggregate news collected by other media • Politicians increasingly communicate with voters through social network sites such as Facebook and Twitter Regulation of the Electronic and Broadcast News Media Tuesday, April 19, 2016 11:01 AM • In the United States, the government neither owns nor controls broadcast networks • The government does regulate content and ownership of broadcast media, but print media are free from government interference • This tendency can be traced to First Amendment protections for the press Regulation of News Media Thursday, April 21, 2016 10:06 AM • Broadcast media face greater scrutiny from federal regulators than do other media • Content and ownership are key issues • Media regulation ○ Federal Communications Commission (FCC) ○ Licenses broadcasters and regulated profanity, obscenity, and indecency ○ Licenses broadcasters and regulated profanity, obscenity, and indecency Regulation of Broadcast Media: FCC Regulations Thursday, April 21, 2016 10:08 AM • Equal Time Rule: Broadcasters must provide candidates for the same office an equal opportunity to communicate their message • Right of Rebuttal: Individuals have the right to respond to personal attacks • Fairness Doctrine: The FCC requires broadcasters to provide time for opposing views on issues The Internet and Government Regulation Thursday, April 21, 2016 • Federal regulation of the Internet is also highly contested • Supporters argue that content originators should be protected from websites that facilitate the distribution of protected content • Foreign-‐based Internet companies can easily escape federal regulation Freedom of the Press Thursday, April 21, 2016 • Guaranteed in the First Amendment • Prior restraint: an effort by a government agency to block the publication of material it deems libelous or harmful in some other Freedom of the Press Thursday, April 21, 2016 • Guaranteed in the First Amendment • Prior restraint: an effort by a government agency to block the publication of material it deems libelous or harmful in some other way • Near v. Minnesota (1931) set a high legal threshold for government prior restraint Organization and Ownership of the Media Thursday, April 21, 2016 • 1996 Telecommunications Act led to media consolidation • The internet can provide a counterweight to media consolidation • But there are surprisingly few distinct national sources for news What Affects News Coverage? Thursday, April 21, 2016 10:19 AM • Journalists play a critical role in shaping news coverage • Although most journalists strive objectively, personal biases inevitably shape their perspectives • What do journalists want? ○ Ratings ○ Career success ○ Professional prestige Journalists Thursday, April 21, 2016 10:24 AM • In recent years there has been greater acceptance of partisanship among journalists • The media moguls William Randolph Hearst Journalists Thursday, April 21, 2016 10:24 AM • In recent years there has been greater acceptance of partisanship among journalists • The media moguls William Randolph Hearst (1863-‐1951), Rupert Murdoch (born 1931), and others have shaped news coverage through their biases and business interests Do Journalists Bias the News? Thursday, April 21, 2016 • More journalists identify themselves as Democrats and liberals than as Republicans and conservatives • Most studies have failed to identify major biases in coverage of national politics, though some subtle biases do exist Citizen Journalism Thursday, April 21, 2016 10:31 AM • The emergence of citizen journalism enabled by then internet, promotes a wider variety of perspectives • Citizen journalists played a major role in recent crises in Egypt, Libya, and Syria • Critics of citizens journalism express concern about upholding traditional journalistic standards and training News Sources: News Leaks Thursday, April 21, 2016 10:33 AM • Individuals shape news through the dissemination of confidential information • In 1971, Daniel Ellsberg, a military analyst employed by the RAND Corporation, release to the New York Times the Pentagon Papers, 10:33 AM • Individuals shape news through the dissemination of confidential information • In 1971, Daniel Ellsberg, a military analyst employed by the RAND Corporation, release to the New York Times the Pentagon Papers, a top-‐secret study of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War • Edward Snowden, who leaked information about NSA wiretapping, is a more contemporary but no less controversial figure News Sources: Politicians Thursday, April 21, 2016 10:36 AM • Press conferences, speeches, and other powers of the bully pulpit allow presidents to set and shape news agendas • Government agencies sometimes release statistics strategically • Administration officials leak information to shape media and public impressions of news events (for example, the Valeria Plame scandal) Manufactures "News" Thursday, April 21, 2016 10:39 AM • There have been recent cases of journalists paid by officials to slant news stories • Government videos designed to resemble actual news stories attempt to sway public opinion • Politicization of news undermines public faith in the media as an institution Consumers Thursday, April 21, 2016 10:42 AM Consumers Thursday, April 21, 2016 10:42 AM • The news business is ultimately geared toward making a profit • By attracting lucrative advertising, news outlets cater to an upscale audience • "If it bleeds, it leads." News is tailored to consumer preferences for entertainment The Media and Conflict Thursday, April 21, 2016 10:44 AM • The media are sometimes accused of encouraging conflict and even violence because viewers tune in for dramatic stories • But protest as a strategy for attracting media coverage does not always work, as the media frequently focus on the conflict rather than the issues at stake Media Power and Responsibility Thursday, April 21, 2016 • The media play a powerful role in shaping public perception of news events ○ Civil Rights Movement ○ War in Iraq ○ 2008 Presidential Election • There is inherent tension between a free press and a responsible press