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Week 16 Notes

by: Gloria Notetaker
Gloria Notetaker
GPA 3.8

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These are the last notes of the year! I recommend reading the slides along with this Ch 24 Respiratory Ch 25 Digestive Ch 26 Urinary Ch 27 Reproductive
Human Anatomy
Dr. Yard
Class Notes
anatomy, iupui, URINARY SYSTEM, Reproductive system, Respiratory system, Digestive System
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gloria Notetaker on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL-N261 at Indiana University Purdue University - Indianapolis taught by Dr. Yard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Science at Indiana University Purdue University - Indianapolis.

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Date Created: 04/28/16
The Respiratory System-Ch 24 Introduction  Will be clinical questions about respiratory definitions on final  Epistaxis= nosebleed  Cystic Fibrosis: mucus build up in lungs  Cavitary Emphysema: Holes in lungs, missing parenchyma  Lungs of pneumonia= dark and thick, looks almost like a liver  Lung cancer lungs are ugly pinkish/white cottage cheese like  Chonae: Posterior nasal cavity  Nasal conchae: Part of nasal cavity. Superior and middle conchae come off of ethmoid, inferior is its own bone  Minors Disease=black lung disease. Coal miner’s get this easily  Lungs should be a pinkish blueish color.  All our lungs have black in them because city air. An Overview of the Respiratory System  Respiratory tract includes 2 portions. o Conduction portion: most of respiratory system. From nasopharynx to terminal portion of respiratory system o Respiratory portion: Where respiration really occurs  In larynx: thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, and tracheal cartilage. All is made with hyaline cartilage  Epiglottis=elastic cartilage  Some functions of respiratory system: protecting respiratory surface, protects from dangerous pathogens, and many more  Inhaling air actually effects our body chemistry, the acidity or alkalinity. Effects what happens in the brain stem  Pneumonia=Hurts. Sickness located in base of lungs  Pleurisy: inflammation of pleura  Asthma: terminal bronchi are spazzing  Trachealis muscle: between tracheal cartilage  Brainstem damage is almost always fatal unless immediately put on respirator The Lower Respiratory System  Aspiration: Food going into “wrong pipe”(larynx). Inhaling your food. Can happen if you talk when you eat  Trachea is also called windpipe The Primary Bronchi  Also called main bronchi  Right bronchi=wider and steeper, makes it easier for kids to aspirate. If right lung aspirates, so will left lung The lungs  Lung is divided into lobes. Right=3 lobes. Left=2 lobs  Bronchioles(branch from bronchis) lead to alveoli  Sucking chest wound can happen in gunshot wounds, knife wounds, car accidents etc. Its when an injury from chest causes air to flow in through a hole in the chest because the lungs are there.  Pulmonary blood goes into right ventricle->pulm artery-> lungs-> pulm veins-> heart-> left atrium-> left ventricle-> aorta  Two major types of cells in lungs. Type 1=structural cells. Type 2= secretes surfactants The Digestive System-Ch 25 Introduction  Esophagus is separated into 3 parts by muscle type. Top 1/3 portion=skeletal muscle. Next 1/3=smooth and skeletal. Bottom 1/3=smooth  Outer layer of esophagus=adventitia. Outer layer of rest of digestive system=serosa  Esophageal sphincter connects esophagus to stomach  Haustra=bulges in intestines.  Digestive tract histology has 2 layers of muscularis externa. A longitudal and circular. In stomach, deep to circular=oblique  Deglutition=swallowing An Overview of the Digestive System  Mesenteries: Double sheets of serous peritioneum  Major layers of digestive tract(inner to outer) Mucosa-> submucosa-> muscularis externis- >serosa/adventitia  Submucosa is highly vascularized  The illium in small intestine has peyers patches  Peristalsis=vomiting  Oblique muscle in stomach is responsible for breaking down food  The serosa in digestive tract is so thin that you can see muscles underneath Oral Cavity  Only teeth Q you need to know on final is that the gomphosis joint is a synarthrosis(fibrous joint)  3 major salivary glands=parotid, sublingual, submandibular The Esophagus  Stratified Squamous Epithelium, lamina propia, and muscularis mucosae are all layers in the mucosal layer  Connects pharynx to stomach The Stomach  pH is 2-4. Acidic. Stomach needs acid to digest foods!  Has gastric pits that are shallow and gastric glands that are deep  Don’t forget about the oblique layer of muscle, that is only in stomach! The Small Intestine and Large Intestine  3 layers of small. Duedenum(first portion coming from stomach), Jejunum, Ileum(last portion to large intestine) Mnemonic: DJ Illy.  Three regions of large. Cecum(beginning at end of ileum), colon, rectum(goes to anus) Accessory Glandular Digestive Organs  Liver produces bile and gallbladder stores it.  Liver has a classic hepatic triad  Hepatic Lobule: functional unit of liver (test Q) The Urinary System-Ch 26 Introduction  Nephron=basic functional unit of the kidney  Urine flow does not equal blood flow! Know where blood in kidney flows, and where urine flows  Right kidney is lower than left because of liver  Kidneys are protected by a layer of fat and a layer of fascia  Kidneys are retroperitoneal (behind body wall). So is duodenum The Kidneys  Proximal convoluted tubules contain microvilli  Glomerulus filters out 1500mL of ultrafiltrate (stuff that goes through nephron and turns into urine), and 1500L of stuff total(blood and urine) o If you have high blood pressure, kidney filters more blood, and this can damage your kidney  Know all the arteries and veins in the kidney, and where the urine goes after glomerulus all the way to ureter Aging and Urinary System  Number of functional nephrons decreases  Reduces sensitivity to ADH, making urination increase The Reproductive System Introduction  Male scrotum is equal to female labia major  Uterus lies retroperitoneal Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System  If cut into testes you will see seminiferous tubules , and cute into those and find sperm cells  When cremaster muscles contract, pulls testes back to body. This is for warmth and to keep sperm viable. Usually an involuntary contraction. But sumo wrestlers and other strong men can do it voluntarily  Outside of the seminiferous tubules are the (from inner to outer) tunica albuginea (white coat), and then the tunica vaginalis. Then outside of that you will find muscles(like the cremaster)  Sperm is found growing almost continuously with males. o Female eggs there are the most at birth, and lose every month until none left  Spermatogenesis: Physical maturation of sperm  There is pseudostratified columnar epithelium in the epididymis  The corpus spongiosum is the spongy inside of the penis, fills with blood and causes erection Anatomy of the Female Reproduction System  Oogenesis: Physical maturation of eggs  Meiosis II only occurs if fertilization has occurred  Uterus has 3 wall layers: Outer to inner: Perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium  Perimetrium is the visceral layer of serous peritoneum  Stratified squamous epithelium lines vaginal canal


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