Lecture 16 FNR 251
Popular in Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds
Popular in Agriculture and Forestry
This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FNR 251 at Purdue University taught by Rod N. Williams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds in Agriculture and Forestry at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
OUTLINE: DISPERSAL & SPECIATION • 1. Conservation minute: PARIDS & RELATED GROUPS. • 2. GENE FLOW • 3. DISPERSAL PATTERNS. • 4. SPECIATION. Suggested readingsSteenhof, K. and J. Heath. 2013. Local recruitment and natal dispersal distances of American Kestrel. Condor 115:584- 592. FAMILIES: PARIDAE, SITTIDAE, CERTHIDAE, TROGLODYTIDAE Four families linked by winter flocking behavior: chickadees, nuthatches, creepers, wrens. CONSERVATION ISSUES • Most species are common, familiar yard birds. Readily come to feeders, so are popular. • SECONDARY CAVITY NESTERS: SNAG RETENTION: Chwrensees, nuthatches, some • BEWICK’S WREN has mostly disappeared from eastern states GENE FLOW & SPECIATION • Gene flow reduces variation. • Movement of breeding individuals • Dispersal is a critical process in determining whether populations are linked. DISPERSAL DEFINITIONS • NATAL DISPERSAL – Distance moved by young birds from natal site to site of first breeding attempt. • BREEDING DISPERSAL – Distance moved by older birds to change breeding sites. DISPERSAL PATTERNS • 1. Females move greater distances than males. [Opposite pattern than most vertebrates] • 2. Natal dispersal is greater than adult breeding dispersal. [Exceptions occur, especially to first point] DISPERSAL = “BLACK HOLE” • Very poor natural history info on dispersal. Think of geometry. • RADIOTELEMETRY is giving some results. Example: Western Screech 5 km 5 km Natal territory SPECIATION Can happen when dispersal ends & populations become isolated. COMMON ROUTES: 1. Islands. 2. “Vicariance” = original range broken by barriers. SPECIATION AS A PROCESS • 1. Populations change while isolated (especially. When ranges contract). • 2. “Secondary contact.” Populations during late range expansion • 3. “Positive assortative mating.” Considered separate species POSITIVE ASSORTATIVE MATING Western Grebe Clark’s Grebe Birds of North America online HYBRID ZONES • Sometimes, when populations come back into secondary contact, they don’t show positive assortative mating. Instead, they produce hybrids. “Red-shafted Flicker” “Yellow-shafted Flicker” Hybridize in Great Plains – now considered subspecies of “NORTHERN FLICKER” STABLE HYBRID ZONES If hybridization is stable over time (not increasing or decreasing), then not considered evidence that forms are the same species. So hybrids can be evidence for or against speciation.
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