Health Psyc Notes Week 14
Health Psyc Notes Week 14 Psyc 400
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Riley on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 400 at Humboldt State University taught by Carrie Aigner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at Humboldt State University.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
Week Fourteen Class Notes Tuesday, 26 April 2016 **Announcement: AMSA (American Medical Student Association) Club is available What Does a Healthy Diet Look Like? CONT…. I. Food Access in the US a. Youtube video: Weight of the Nation (Food access) i. Video: 1. Areas with higher rates of obesity are more devoid of options for healthier foods 2. 1 out 5 people who did not graduate from high school are considered obese 3. Lower income areas tend to have less parks and open recreation or park spaces a. Reflects higher levels of obesity 4. Low income communities tend to have higher numbers of convenience stores that serve junk than wealthier communities b. What’s happening around the world? i. Survey of world’s population over 1990-2010 ii. Middle and low income countries saw dramatic increase in consumption of unhealthy foods 1. Greatest increase was in China and India iii. “Globalization” of Western Diet 1. Western habits are spreading around the world II. Genetic Contribution a. Susceptibility to common obesity is thought to e affected by many genes (polygenetic) b. Study of 75,000 twins and family members i. Mean correlations for BMI are 1. 0.74 for monozygotic a. Identical twins 2. 0.32 for dizygotic a. Fraternal Twins 3. 0.25 for siblings 4. 0.12 for spouses c. Bottom line: obesity has a genetic component d. However, big increases in obesity rates over past 40 years point to Gene X Environment Interaction Thursday, 28 April 2016 III. Evolutionally Perspective a. Humans may have evolved a “thrifty” metabolism during times when food was scarce i. An advantage in times of scarcity ii. May be a disadvantage in modern world b. The Positive Incentive Model i. Abundant food source with High Variety and High fat/high sugar foods prompts overeating 1. We eat more when presented with variety 2. Evolutionary advantage to eat when food is available ii. But Cultural and social factors are also important 1. Cultural influences on food preference 2. Personal experience with food 3. Built environment Health Consequences of Obesity I. Being overweight not associated with significantly increased health risk II. Being obese doubles mortality a. Especially for those with BMI >40 b. Obesity associated with i. Increased mortality ii. Increased use of health care iii. Diabetes iv. High BP v. Sleep apnea, vi. Cancer (colorectal) vii. ETC III. U-shaped curve between BMI and Mortality a. The highest BMI are at higher risk, as are the really low BMIs b. Why U-shaped? i. Complex relationship 1. High BMI associated with greater mortality up to middle- age, but not in old age a. Losing weight after 50 associated with increase mortality IV. New Thinking about Healthy Weight a. Body weight and BMI seem to matter less than healthy diet and exercise b. Overweight on BMI does not mean unhealthy i. If you are living a healthy lifestyle c. Importance of inclusiveness of body type Diets I. Are they effective? a. 1980’s: Introduction of the low-fat diet i. Fats largely replaced by sugars (same calories) b. Low carb products are now popular i. Just because it’s low-carb doesn’t mean it’s healthy ii. It’s still going to have calories, and calories are what count iii. Find foods that are low in fat but also low in simple carbs, high in complex carbs. 1. Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, soy products are good for you. 2. Low in animal protein, higher in the plant-based protein is also good. c. Consider instead: nutritional content d. Simple (processed) vs. complex carbs (plant based and whole grain) i. Both contribute to ‘total carbs’ e. Animal (trans fat) vs. plant-based fats f. Some fad diets are effective in producing weight loss fast i. But, most do not teach sustainable methods for maintaining weight loss g. Bottom Line: A combination of healthful eating, portion control and exercise is the best way to go h. People who use commercial or “fad” diets are likely to gain weight back i. Most regain 50% of weight lost within 1-2 years ii. Higher success rates among those who lost weight through balanced diet and exercise. Exercise and Physical Activity I. Physical Activity- in daily life includes occupational, sports, conditioning, household, or other activities II. Exercise- subset of physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive and has as a final or an intermediate objective the improvement or maintenance of physical fitness. III.What do you hope to gain? a. Reduction in disease risk? b. Weight loss? c. Better of quality of life? d. Increase in life expectancy? e. Cognitive and mood benefits? IV.Exercise Definitions a. Benefits of Exercise – Physical Fitness a. Muscle Strength i. Ex: weight lifting b. Flexibility i. Muscle flexibility and joint range of motion 1. Ex: stretching, yoga and tai chi c. Aerobic Fitness i. Ex: Jogging, swimming, cycling ii. Contributes most to cardiovascular fitness b. Exercise Recommendations a. From the CDC: i. 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity (brisk walking 1. Or 75 minutes of vigorous activity (running) every week ii. And muscle strengthening activities twice a week iii. 10 minutes at a time is fine c. Cardiovascular Health a. 30 mins/day of walking can reduce cardiovascular mortality d. Weight loss a. 60 min/day of moderate/intense exercise for obese individuals i. Exercise in addition to caloric restriction helps to build and maintain muscle tissue in addition to reducing fat tissue e. Bottom Line: a. Small levels of PA have been shown to decrease mortality i. E.g. those who do only 90 min a week of moderate activity live 3 years longer than those who do nothing b. Increasing your activity keeps the benefits coming, up until very high levels f. Exercise and Energy Balance a. To lose weight, you need to eat fewer calories than the number of calories you burn i. Calories eaten = Energy intake ii. Calories Burned = Energy Expenditure 1. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) a. Calories burned at rest b. “Metabolism” c. Energy needed to keep your vital organs functioning. d. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment, in the post-absorptive state (meaning that the digestive system is inactive, which requires about twelve hours of fasting). e. Aerobic fitness levels do not improve the predictive power of fat free mass for resting metabolic rate, but some evidence that muscle building (anaerobic exercise) does. f. Your BMR is the number of calories your body would need to spend 24 hours asleep in bed. 2. Thermal effect of a meal 3. Exercise iii. Calculate your BMR 1. Harris Benedict Formula calculates your total calorie intake required to maintain your current weight. This is as follows: 2. Little/no exercise: BMR * 1.2 = Total Calorie Need 3. Light exercise: BMR * 1.375 = Total Calorie Need 4. Moderate exercise (3-5 days/wk): BMR * 1.55 = Total Calorie Need 5. Very active (6-7 days/wk): BMR * 1.725 = Total Calorie Need 6. Extra active (very active & physical job): BMR * 1.9 = Total Calorie Need 7. This equals the total number of calories you would need to consume in order to maintain your current weight. 8. If you are consuming more calories, you will gain weight, and if you’re consuming fewer calories, you will lose weight. iv. BMR 1. Decreases with age 2. Women have lower BMR 3. Heavier people have higher BMR 4. People with greater muscle have higher BMR a. Muscle adds weight and requires more energy 5. Changes as exercise increases and weight decreases Exercise Benefits I. Physical Health a. Meeting basic physical activity requirements results in 33% reduction in all cause mortality b. Reduce risk of disease, but also reduces risk of recurrence i. E.g. CVD ii. Including exercise in cardiac rehabilitation after heat attack reduces risk of second heart attack 1. Exercise benefit disappears after 5 years if people stop exercising c. Harvard Alumni Study i. Over 16,000 Harvard Alumni were surveyed throughout 1960s-90s ii. Physical activity energy expenditure was estimated based on self- report of activities 1. In kilocalories burned per week iii. Findings 1. Men who burned <2000 kilocalories per week had a RR of heart attack of 1.64 (p<.001) compared to men who burned >2000 kilocalories weekly a. 2000 kilocalories/week = 20 miles of jogging!!! 2. In the 1993 survey, 2,135 subjects had experienced coronary heart disease (87.1% response rate). 3. In this analysis, the researchers found increased physical activity level was associated with lower coronary heart disease risk when considered singly (RR for those who burned more than 8400 kilojoules per week= 0.73, 95% CI= 0.63-0.84, p <.001).  4. When considered along with age, BMI, alcohol intake, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status and early parental death, higher levels of physical activity were also apparently protective (RR for those who burn more than 4200 kilojoules per week= 0.81, 95% CI: 0.71-0.92, p= .003) . d. Exercise can protect against cancers i. Especially breast and colorectal cancer ii. How? 1. Possibly by slowing tumor initiation and growth 2. Impacts pro-inflammatory cytokines a. Proteins that promote inflammation 3. Weight control and endogenous hormones Bold Vocabulary from the Book Chapter Fifteen: Exercising 1. Abstinence Violation Effect – Feelings of guilt and loss of control often experienced after a person lapses into an unhealthy habit after a period of abstinence 2. Aerobic Exercise – Exercise that requires an increased amount of oxygen consumption over an extended period of time 3. Anaerobic Exercises –Exercise that requires short, intensive bursts of energy but does not require an increased amount of oxygen use 4. Isokinetic Exercise – Exercise requiring exertion for lifting and additional effort for returning weight to its starting position 5. Isometric – Exercise performed by contracting muscles against an immovable object 6. Isotonic Exercise – Exercise that requires the contraction of muscles and the movement of joints, as in weight lifting 7. State Anxiety – A temporary condition of dread or uneasiness stemming from a specific situation 8. Trait Anxiety – A personality characteristic that manifests itself as a more or less constant feeling of dread or uneasiness
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