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Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds
Rod N. Williams
Class Notes
Ecology, systematics, herps, birds, forestry, naturalresources
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FNR 251 at Purdue University taught by Rod N. Williams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds in Agriculture and Forestry at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 04/28/16
OUTLINE: CONSERVATION • 1. FAMILIES: THRUSHES & RELATIVES • 2. CONSERVATION HISTORY. • 3. BASIC PATTERNS OF AVIAN EXTINCTIONS. Suggested Readings: Weidensaul, S. 2003. The ghost with trembling wings. North Point Press. Families: Thrushes and Mimic Thrushes Two families often confused THRUSHES: include robins, bluebirds MIMIDS: mockingbird, catbird, thrashers Bluebirds (thrushes) Confusion: Thrushes vs thrashes Gray Catbird – a mimid CONSERVATION • Wood Thrush (& others) heavily parasitized by cowbirds. • Bluebirds (esp. Eastern) supported with nest boxes (in part due to competition with exotics). • Cozumel Thrasher: Off coast of Mexico, may have gone extinct due to Hurricane Wilma in 2005. AVIAN CONSERVATION • Long history in Europe and USA for management & conservation of bird populations. • But these efforts historically have focused on relatively few taxonomic groups. Waterfowl Neotropical migrants Charismatic Upland (most recent) megafauna, such game GENERAL PATTERNS • @10,000 species worldwide • @1000 of these are endangered / threatened (but recent climate change studies suggest up to 1/3 of all species may be threatened). • 10 countries support >400 of the threatened species with restricted ranges. TOP 10 NATIONS Indonesia Brazil, Columbia, Peru, Ecuador Philippines USA China, India Mexico Recent analysis of North American birds undergoing population declines • Species % decline habitat Rusty Blackbird 97.9% boreal forest Henslow’s Sparrow* 96.4 grassland Common Tern 90.6 wetland Verdin 85.6 desert Sprague’s Pipit 83.8 grassland Pinyon Jay 82.5 pine woodlands Short-eared Owl 80.3 grassland Cerulean Warbler* 79.6 forest Black-throated Sparrow 79.6 desert Loggerhead Shrike* 77.1 grassland Grasshopper Sparrow* 77.1 grassland *Indiana breeder DOMINANT CAUSES OF EXTINCTION • 1. ISLANDS 90% of all extinctions since 1600 were island species. Examples: Dodo St. Stephens Island Wren John Keulemans (1895)y Dodo EXTINCTION CAUSES • 2. LOSS OF CRITICAL HABITATS • Single biggest factor for 90% of species on U.S. Endangered Species List. • EXAMPLES: Wetlands, Atlantic Forest of Brazil Arizona wetlands EXTINCTION CAUSES • 3. LIVE BIRD TRADE. In most years, 2-5 million birds exported by developing countries. In 2007, European Union banned imports of all exotic birds (worries about avian flu). EXTINCTION CAUSES • 4. PESTICIDES, POLLUTANTS. Considered major problem in past (DDT, Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring). Less important now (although DDT still sold abroad & conservatives are now attacking Rachel Carson as a mass murderer). (See Oreskes & Conway. 2010. Merchants of Doubt) CURRENT ISSUES: Flame retardants now in California falcon eggs. Lead in California Condor EXTINCTION CAUSES • 5. HUMAN EXPLOITATION • Hunting was major issue in past, illegal now to use native birds for commercial markets in USA. • EXAMPLES: “bushmeat” crisis, netting of migrants in Malta.


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