Popular in Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds
Popular in Agriculture and Forestry
This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FNR 251 at Purdue University taught by Rod N. Williams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds in Agriculture and Forestry at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
NEOTROPICAL MIGRANTS • 1. FAMILIES: 9-PRIMARIED OSCINES, II • 2. POPULATION DECLINES: EVIDENCE • 3. POSSIBLE CAUSES: WINTER, BREEDING, MIGRATION. Suggested readings: Terborgh, J. 1989. Where have all the birds gone? Princeton Univ. Press. FAMILIES: MORE 9-PRIMARIED OSCINES Additional families in New World: New World sparrows, cardinals (does not include House Sparrow) Swamp Sparrow Field Sparrow Northern Cardinal (different family) MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS • CONICAL BILLS: found in at least some species in these families including cardinals (& grosbeaks) & sparrows • Used to crack seeds. Black-headed Grosbeak CONSERVATION ISSUES • Sparrows are typical of many grassland species – declining more than forest birds. • Henslow’s Sparrow is endangered in state. attracted to reclaimed coal mines. NEOTROPICAL MIGRANTS Species that breed in USA & Canada, and have substantial populations that winter south of USA-Mexico border. Especially forest birds. Hooded Warbler Generally not applied to hawks (like this Swallow-tailed Kite), shorebirds, waterfowl, although they fit definition. Scarlet Tanager EVIDENCE ON POPULATION DECLINES in NEOTROP. MIGRANTS • 1. CHRISTMAS BIRD COUNTS – (1900 – present, National Audobon Society) Long- term data set, but not useful for migrants, since they are not heer in winter. • 2. BREEDING BIRD SURVEYS: (1966 – Present, U.S. Geological Survey). Standardized roadside survey done by volunteers. Does cover breeding birds, but mostly roadside species BBS DATA – ALL SPECIES DARK AREAS: MORE THAN 50% DECLINING BBS DATA: FOREST SPECIES EVIDENCE • Unique source of data: weather radar. • 1965,66,67: migration event recorded on 90-100% of days with good migration weather. 1997, 1998, 1999; 36-53% POSSIBLE CAUSES • 1. WINTERING GROUNDS – Habitat loss in Latin America. • 2. BREEDING GROUNDS – Habitat loss here in North America – Habitat fragmentation (cowbird parasitism, corvid predation) • 3. MIGRATORY STOPOVER HABITATS. - Increased mortality while migrating, coastal development • 4. NONE OF THE ABOVE • - Could be long-term pattern that we don’t understand IMPACTS OF FRAGMENTATION COWBIRD ABUNDANCE NEST PREDATION Stopover habitat
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