Psychology Week 15 Notes
Psychology Week 15 Notes Psych 220
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Notetaker on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 220 at University of New Mexico taught by Cheryl Bryan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
Psychology 220- Developmental Psychology Tues/Thurs 9:30-10:45am Week #14 Chapter 14: Adolescence: Biosocial Development Overview Puberty Growth and Nutrition Brain Development Sexual Maturation Stages of Adolescence 1. Early adolescence (11-14) Pubertal changes take place 2. Middle adolescence (14-16) Body changes are largely completed, adult roles and responsibilities are typically not assumed 3. Late adolescence (16-18) Teens often take on more adult appearances, roles, and responsibilities Puberty: a series of biological developments that transform the individuals from a state of physical immaturity to one in which they are biologically mature, and capable of sexual reproduction. *Much easier to track female puberty versus male (tracking menstrual cycles, etc.) *A females first menstrual period is referred to as menarche *A males first ejaculation of sperm is called spermarche Time between first onrush of hormones and full adult physical development Usually lasts 3-5 years Females take on more estrogen and males take on more testosterone, but each of them produces both Hormones: organic body chemicals regulating hunger, sleep, moods, stress, sexual desire, immunity, reproduction, etc. Pituitary: a gland in the brain that responds to a signal from the hypothalamus by producing many hormones, including the adrenal and sex glands Adrenal Glands: two glands located above the kidneys that produce hormones (especially “stress” hormones adrenaline and norepinephrine). Gonads: the paired sex glands (ovaries/testicles) that produce hormones and gametes. HPA axis = Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis VS. HPG axis = Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonad axis Puberty is characterized by: Rapid accelerated growth Females are gaining more fat overall and males are gaining more muscle overall *For females typically half of our body is fat –almost double that of the males Development of primary and secondary sex characteristics: Primary –areas concerned with reproduction Secondary –not directly related to reproduction Ex: Breasts, beards Changes in body composition Ex: voice changes occur in both males and females Ex: Boys growing in their shoulders vs. girls growing in their hips Factors Influencing Onset of Puberty Genetic Factors -Finding similar occurrences in mother and daughter, monozygotic twins Nutrition -Better nutrition associated with earlier puberty -Body fat related to onset of puberty -More body fat triggers the onset earlier in their lives -Someone who is undernourished will not start puberty for longer than someone who is not -Sport participation or disturbed eating can affect puberty Leptin: a hormone that affects appetite and is believed to affect the onset of puberty. Leptin levels increase during childhood and peak around age 12 Stress -Severe abuse associated with late maturation -Family conflict correlated with accelerated puberty -Female living with non-biological male relative is more likely to go through puberty earlier Gender -Females go through puberty earlier than males Secular trend: the long-term trend of changes in human growth as a result of modern conditions. -Lasting from century to century Example: improved nutrition and medical care over the past 200 years has led to earlier puberty and greater average height Early Maturing Girls Difficulty fitting in with peers Poor body image Higher risk for depression Start dating earlier Have sex earlier Engage in more norm breaking behaviors Late Maturing Girls Closer to their parents Often more athletic o Less body fat Date later Considered more physically attractive by their peers Lively, sociable, leaders Less likely to engage in norm breaking behaviors Early Maturing Boys Excel in sports Often chosen as leaders More conventional as adults o They are not as big of risk takers Less intellectually curious, exploratory Independent, relaxed o Given responsibilities sometimes before they are earned Physically attractive Engage in norm breaking behaviors early Late Maturing Boys Have more peer difficulties Lower self-esteem Talkative and playful o To compensate for lack of attention for “good looks” More flexible, general sense of humor as adults Ethnics Difference in Maturation African American girls start the earliest Then Mexican American Then European American Children in Africa go through puberty later than US and Western Europe Growth and Nutrition Growth spurts o Weight, height, and muscle gain Weight and height increase before muscle and internal organ growth to protect immature muscles and organs o Growth spurts are not always symmetrical o The torso is the last body part to grow Diet Deficiencies o Deficiencies in iron, calcium, zinc, and others are typical during adolescence o Menstruation in girls and intensive labor in boys are causes of deficiencies Body Image o Teens exhibit anxiety of body changes more commonly than acceptance Eating Disorders: 1. Anorexia Nervosa a. Voluntary starvation and a destructive attitude about one’s own body b. Certain alleles increase risk of developing anorexia 2. Bulimia Nervosa (also called binge-purge syndrome) a. Binge eating followed by purging through vomiting or use of laxatives b. Clinically diagnosed in 1 in 3 adolescent females in the U.S. c. Risk health problems such as damage to their gastrointestinal systems and cardiac arrest from electrolyte imbalance Brain Development Pruning of synapses –more efficient cognitive processing Continued myelination Continued development of the prefrontal cortex –growing ability for adolescents to regulate their behavior in risk situations o Prefrontal cortex is fully developed by late adolescence/early adulthood The limbic system matures before frontal lobes which are the last to mature o This means intensive emotions such as fear and anxiety manifest unchecked by emotional regulation and impulse control -Some parents don’t have the patience to recognize that cognitive shift in their adolescent children Health During Adolescence In general: Adolescence is a healthy age period Problem-free reproduction Peak athletic performance Higher energy and endurance Body systems function at an optimal level Death by disease is rare (worldwide) However: -Teens engage in behaviors that put their health at risk -The incidence of eating disorders has also increased, especially for females -Fatal accidents, suicides, and homicides are the leading cause of death, especially for males Adolescent Risky Behavior Sex Drugs/Alcohol/Tobacco Injuries Suicide At what age did you first have sexual intercourse? In the U.S.: About 25% of teens have had sexual intercourse by age 14 About 50% by age 17 About 90% by age 21 *1 in 2 teens attract some sort of STD by the age of 17 Drugs -Atmosphere using drugs in high school -Most U.S. teens use alcohol and tobacco before the age of 18 -About 50% have tried marijuana -U.S. has greatest number of available drugs (Majority of teens do not use them) What are some possible reasons adolescents might use drugs? The desire to fit in with peers Thrill of the sensation A way to self-medicate A perception of normality when being a teenager Injuries and Death -Accidental deaths during adolescence are likely due to Body changes o Brain changes Social context Protective factors: -Success in school -Religious identity -High self-esteem -Relationship with parents -Feeling connected at school Sleep in Adolescence A shift in sleep patterns occurs in adolescence Go to sleep later at night and are still required to get up early Sleep deprivation is associated with difficulties in school and depression Why we have the current schedule: -90% of teenagers used to live on farms Had early morning chores Go to school in the early afternoon Get home in time for afternoon chores Long summers are for working in the fields Benefits of later start time: Edina school started at 8:30 am and ended at 3:10 pm (versus 7:25 am and 2:05 pm) Fewer absences More on time Less disruptive Less sick Increase in grades overall **Studies have proven that later start times are better for adolescents Problems/critiques of later start times: Interferes with extracurricular activities Bus drivers don’t like driving in rush hour traffic School employees disliked being at the school later in the afternoon Police thought leaving early in the morning with their parents would be more beneficial Public officials claimed the children would be more problematic later in the afternoon School coaches wanted athletes starting early Adolescents are working after school –interferes with work schedules
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