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lecture 16 cell biology

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by: MelLem

lecture 16 cell biology BIOL 225

Marketplace > Simmons College > Biology > BIOL 225 > lecture 16 cell biology
Simmons College
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lecture 16
Cell Biology
Dr. Lopilato
Class Notes
25 ?




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1 review
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Samuel Croteau

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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by MelLem on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 225 at Simmons College taught by Dr. Lopilato in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Cell Biology in Biology at Simmons College.

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Date Created: 04/28/16
Cell  Biology   BIOL  225   Lecture  16     Interactions  of  Mammalian  Cells  with  Extracellular  Matrix     • In  culture   • In  the  body   • Components  of  the  Extracellular  matrix   • Cell  signaling     • Focal  Adhesions  –  contacts  when  the  cell  starts  making  contact.  Allows  cells  to   attach  to  the  substratum  (  Surface  of  a  flask,  cover  slip)  seen  invitro   • Invitro  –  in  a  lab,  in  class,  tissue  culture.   • Normal  human  cells  can  not  grown  in  a  suspension  (in  liquid).  Normal  human  cells   require  a  surface  to  grow  on.   • Cancer  cells  however  can  grow  in  suspension,  like  a  bacteria  or  yeast  cell.     How  cells  interact  with  their  extracellular  environment   • Extracellular  matrix  –  scaffolding,  support  for  tissues   o Fibrous  for  support   • Connective  tissue   • Basement  membrane  underneath  the  plasma  membrane  (basement  membrane  does   not  contain  cells.   • Basement  membrane  prevents  cancer  cells  from  entering  tissues.     Components  of  the  extracellular  matrix   • Integrins  –  integrated  through  the  membrane   • Integrin  transmembrane  proteins  bind  to  components  of  the  ECM  in  their  active   form.   o Can  transmit  signals   • Integrins  transmit  signals  from  ECM  to  cell  interior   • Collagen   o Trip  helix  of  3  polypeptides  (alpha)   o Has  a  lot  of  prolines  +  lysines  (get  hydroxylated  –  adding  OH  –  gives   opportunity  for  hydrogen  bonds)   o Hydroxylated  prolines  and  lysines  form  hydrogen  bonds  to  join  the  three   alpha  polypeptides  into  a  collagen  fiber   o 1mm  fiber  can  hold  22  pounds  (10  Kilograms)  without  breaking   o For  hydroxylation  to  occur,  you  need  vitamin  C  (as  a  cofactor  for   hydroxylations)  (ascorbic  Acid)   o Lack  of  vitamin  C  =  Scurvy   o Collagen  associated  Diseases     ▯ Fibrosis  of  the  lungs  and  liver  (liver  =  cerosis)   ▯ Type  1  defect  –  osteogenesis  imperfect  +  fragile  bones   ▯ Type  4  –  kidney  disease  –  alport     o Talin  –  adaptor  protein  that  links  integrins  to  the  cytoskeleton   • Proteoglycan   • Fibronectin   o Polypeptide   o Held  together  by  disulfide  bonds   o RGD  –  binding  site  for  the  integrins   o Defects  in  fibronectin   ▯ Development  –  cells  must  migrate  and  fibronectin  directs  their   migration   ▯ The  lung  and  kidney  develop  from  branching  structure  and  need  to   form  clefts.   • Laminin     • Changing  in  the  ECM  are  conveyed  by  binding  to  our  receptor  and  activates  the   kinases  and  causes  changes  in  the  cell.     Hemidesmosomes  Anchor  Cells  to  ECM   • Hemidesmosomes  –  anchor  the  cells  to  the  ECM   • Integrins  –  found  only  in  animals,  theres  18  different  alphas  an  8  different  beta   chains.  Heterodimer.  About  24  different  integrins   • You  need  integrins  to  interact  with  the  basement  membrane  and  the  ECM  tissues  +   substratum  in  tissue  cultures.   • Because  of  integrins,  normal  cells  do  not  grow  in  suspension,  you  need  substratum   contact  to  generate  signals  for  cell  viability.   • Hemidesmosomes  –  cant  attach  in  some  auto  immune  diseases  to  the  basement   membrane    (causes  severe  blistering)   • Defects  in  integrins,  collagen  or  laminin  5  also  disrupt  the  basement  membrane     Junctions  for  communication   • Gap  Junctions  –  animal  cells   o Connexin   o Passage  of  ions   • Plasmodesmata  –  plant  cells   o Connect  plant  cells   o Dilates  for  passage  of  macromolecules   • Plasmodesmata  –  cytoplasmic  channels  passing  through  cell  walls  of  adjacent  plant   cells.   o Are  lines  by  a  plasma  membrane   o Contain  a  central  structure,  the  desmotubule.   o Serves  as  a  site  of  cell-­‐cell  communication     Plant  Cell  Wall   • Extracellular   • Function   o Shape   o Support,  protection  against  mechanical  abrasion,  pathogens  and  osmotic   stress.   • Components   o Cellulose  arranged  in  microfibrils  to  provide  rigidity     o Matrix  contains  hemicellulose,  pectin  and  glycoproteins.   o Matrix  keeps  the  plants  hydrates   • Assembly  of  cellulose       Synthesis  of  plant  cell  walls   • Cell  walls  arise  as  a  cell  plate  that  forms  between  the  plasma  membranes  of  newly   formed  daughter  cells.   • The  walls  of  growing  cells  are  primary  walls  and  allow  flexibility  lacking  in  the   thicker  secondary  walls  of  mature  cells.       CELL  BIOL  CHAPTER  8     Cytoplasmic  Membrane  Systems:  Structure,  function,  and  membrane  trafficking     Endomembrane  System   • Components   • Budding  and  fusion  of  vesicles  from  one  compartment  to  next   • Tranfer  of  proteins   • Transfer  of  membrane  lipids   • Coated  vesicles  –  COP  Proteins           An  overview  of  the  biosynthetic/  secretory  pathways                                  


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