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The Rise of Islam

by: Ally Bradfield

The Rise of Islam Hist 1010

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > Hist 1010 > The Rise of Islam
Ally Bradfield
GPA 3.19

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These are the notes beginning from the Rise of Islam.
World History 1
Donna Bohanan
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ally Bradfield on Friday April 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 04/29/16
The Rise of Islam I. Arabian Peninsula before Islam II. Muhammed a. Early Life: orphaned and later raised by his merchant uncle who travelled for business in Syria. Rose Muhammed as a merchant, introducing him to Christians and Jews in Palestine. Becomes merchant. b. Revelations: increasingly influenced by monotheism, wrote down his revelations from Gabriel that became the beginning of the holy book of Islam, the Quran. c. Hijra: Tries to convert others from Mecca to his religion, but is run out of Mecca due to the people fearing the disruption of their tourism and its profits. d. Conversions: Goes to Medina and easily converts, later becoming a military leader and converting Mecca as well. Created the Umma (Islamic community). Believed in the equality of all believers. III. Doctrines: straightforward, clear a. Five Tenets i. Oneness of God: same deity as Christians and Jews ii. Muhammed as prophet: Allah’s prophet iii. Qu’ran as word of God: through Gabriel to Muhammed iv. Belief in angels v. Life after death: last judgment to determine hell or heaven, sincere repentance could redeem sins b. Five Pillars i. Profession of Faith: accepting that there is one god ii. Daily Prayer iii. Charity: religious duty iv. Fasting during Ramadan: holy month, can’t eat or drink all week until Sunday v. Pilgrimage-Hajj: must make a pilgrimage once in your lifetime to Mecca c. The Mosque: focal point of religious community d. The Shari’ah: code of conduct/law to govern lives IV. Early Caliph’s & Expansion: religious leaders a. Abu Bakr: steps in to restore unity in the community after Muhammed’s death b. Sunnis vs. Shi’ites: more Sunni today. Ali (current caliph) was son-in-low and cousin of Muhammed claimed he’d been called to his position. Mu’awiyah was put to oppose Ali due to questioning about his claims to caliph. Ali is assassinated. c. Claims to universal religion and expansion: spreading Arab political control through an empire. Generally, not forcing conversions but spreading anyways due to religion. d. Umayyads dynasty: Mu’awiyah’s family, wealthy and very powerful. Take position of caliph for a long period of time and expand Arab empire into North Africa and Spain. Kept power in Spain even when Abbasid dynasty replaced them. e. Abbasid dynasty: took power over as caliphs, moved capital to Baghdad as major cultural center. Produce goods and bring empire up economically through trade. Islamic Society and Culture I. Society a. Cosmopolitan: open to different cultural influences, distinguished by degree of social mobility b. Social mobility: equality of all believers, merchant-based economy, social status depended upon status of wealth. c. Literacy: highest literacy rates in the world at the time d. Tolerance: tolerance of other cultural traditions and religions, Jews and Christians were referred to Peoples of the Book e. Status of women: improves in the first 100 years, female infanticide was forbidden by Muhammed, he also allowed them to have a say in their selection of a husband. Women were also educated in order to understand the Qu’ran and able to remarry after death of spouse, etc. After 100 years, the status of women began to deteriorate due to such a patriarchal society. Polygamy was widely practiced with the option of up to four wives, only if you could afford them, treating women as status symbols. Purdah (the vailing of women) or Harem (enclosed place to keep your women). Doesn’t come from the religion itself as much as cultures that predated Islam and spread traditions to them. II. Culture a. Preservation of the Greeks: Aristotle, Greek math and science, and Plato. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) was hugely important in the preservation of Aristotle. b. Science: greatest achievement in medicine. Ibn Sina was also a doctor and wrote about how tuberculosis was contagious, amongst other medical achievements. Understood that the plague was contagious and by contaminated soil and water while other cultures believed that supernatural forces had to to with it. They knew a great deal of optics and developed the hypodermic needle, etc. Huge achievements in development of algebra and trigonometry, and adapted the Arabic numeral system and concept of zero. c. Philosophy: how to reconcile faith with logic. Faith and reason can be two different approaches to the same truth. III. Islam in Asia a. India i. Spread: merchants were protected militarily. Hindu temples were raided. Muhammed of Ghur takes over India. ii. Conversion patterns: lower caste Hindus adopted Islam due to the belief of equality of all believers. Buddhists also convert because Buddhism in India was the older form and was deteriorating from the original concept. Northern India, in general, and Pakistan convert. b. S.E. Asia: (Spice Islands) Arab merchants come to buy spices to sell and begin trade with other countries with silk. Sufism: one who seeks a union with God. Medieval Society I. Feudalism: relying on man-to-man relationships over institutions a. Viking invasions: Magyars and other invaders encouraged the development of feudalism because they came by ship. They would sail quickly, abandon their ships, murder, rape, and pillage. Their speed of doing this and leaving quickly stunned their victims. b. Need for local & rapid defense: c. Changes in Warfare: Charles Martel: mayor of the palace. He defeated the Muslims and used cavalry, a stirrup. This creates stabilization for the attack while riding the horse. People begin to use mounted soldiers against the Vikings in order to stand a chance. They also prepared local, small armies. d. Infeudation: vassals signing off on Lords promising means of support in order to get young boys from towns to work under them in their armies. They would give their vassals a fief: division of land, so that they could train and practice for warfare while they’re not fighting. e. Social Implications: creates an aristocracy. Becomes a way of government for the vassals over the fiefs. II. Manorialism: way of exploiting land financially, shaped the lives of peasants. a. The Manor: exploited by the three-way system. There’s one common pasture where everyone’s livestock is breeding amongst one another. One community consensus upon how to breed and plant on the land, rotating crops and growing particular ones in different seasons. The serfs get a certain amount of land they’re allowed to farm on (with regulations on what they can plant) and must farm for the lord. b. Serfs: bound to the land and forced to work for the local lord. Families are actually kept together. III. Town life a. Improvement in Agriculture: makes a comeback because of surpluses. b. Revival of Trade: Certain surpluses are needed in other places. c. Development of towns: People settle to conduct business. People wanted to live in guilds, with a wall for defense. d. Guild system: manufacturing unions that practice the same craft (textiles), had to trade for seven years as an apprentice. Guilds encourage Christianity. e. Status of townspeople: legal status of townspeople allows them to be free


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